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(p. 368) Subject Index 

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A
Abolitionism 126–7, 135–8, 140
Accountability 5, 22–3, 28, 44, 46–7, 76, 273
Actuarialism 25, 226, 228–9
Adversarial legal systems 88–9, 106–7, 119–20, 21114, 325–31
Age of criminal responsibility (doli incapax) 223–7, 230, 232, 238
Anti-social behaviour 21, 46, 69, 139, 232, 234–5, 274


B
Behavioural Investigative Advice 300–2
’Big Society’ and ‘big events’ 28–30, 37, 45
Burden and standard of proof 107, 115, 119, 337


C
Cautions 68, 69–70
Charging process 85–8, 99–100, 117, 120, 214, 304
Children's Hearings system in Scotland 226–7, 238–42, 250–1
Class and socio-economic groups 2, 108–10, 113
gender 247–8, 261
police 42, 59–60, 62, 65
prisons 190–1
race and ethnicity 269–72, 288
sentencing 127, 136, 174
victims 211, 215
youth justice 223–4, 231, 240–1
Community Order 4, 22, 147, 172–3
Community sentences and alternatives to custody 162–76
community resolutions 97
gender 156, 251–5
historical background 165–8
probation 162–4, 168, 173–5
race and ethnicity 283–4
research 168–71
youth justice 233
Consequentialism 126–32, 136
Courts and trial process 105–22 see also Crown Court; Judges; Magistrates’ courts
forensic science 325–31, 336–7
ideology of criminal courts 119–21
models of adjudication 105–7
prosecution process 83–101
psychology 297–9, 306–8
race and ethnicity 281–2, 306
Crime control 38–9, 53, 65, 89–90
Crime rates 11, 13, 21, 36, 129, 139–40, 195, 274–5
Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC) 7
Criminal Defence Service (CDS) 5, 96
Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA) 7
Criminal justice system, definition of 5–9
Crown Court 6, 100, 105, 111, 113–21, 153, 281–2
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) 5, 8, 85–7, 92, 99, 282, 289, 329
Culture
race and ethnicity 267, 274–5, 287, 289–90
Custodial sentences see also Prisons
aggravating and mitigating standards 147
alternatives 163–4, 168, 170–4, 190
consistency and custodial threshold 152
gender 157, 251, 253
life imprisonment 149–50
plea bargaining 120
policy 149
public protection 150, 189, 314
race 156, 282–3
security categorisation 188, 191
seriousness 155
youth justice 140, 233, 235, 241


D
Dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPS) 313–14
Deaths in police custody 278–9
Defence solicitors 87–9
Defendants, rights of 83–5, 94–7 see also Due process
Democratisation and democracy 1, 14, 17–22, 41, 44–6, 49, 83, 110–15, 323–4, 339
Deterrence 52, 128, 130–2, 146, 148–51, 185, 194, 277, 283
Differential treatment see Discrimination and equality
Diplock courts 120–1
Discontinuance 86–7, 99, 282
Discretion
police 44, 58, 62–4, 66–8, 95–9, 267, 269, 281
prosecution 92–3
sentencing 148, 152, 170, 172–4
Discrimination and equality see also Class and socio-economic groups; Gender; Race and Ethnicity
bias 88, 112, 116, 134, 325–31
magistrates 108–10, 112, 155–7, 258
victims 202, 204–5, 210
Diversion 228–9, 234, 238, 241, 250, 255, 314
DNA profiling 51–3, 322–7, 331–40
contamination 327, 338
co-production 338–9
databases and speculative searching 334, 338–9
’gold standard’, as 322, 331, 342
historical background 331–4
miscarriages of justice 324, 333
’new paradigm’, as 334–6
presentation and interpretation of evidence 329, 336–7
Domestic violence 60, 62, 118, 204–7, 213–14, 255–8, 329
Due process 1, 9, 70, 87–9, 116, 119, 325, 331


Ethnicity 267–90 see also Race; Racism
gender 247–8, 261
magistrates 109
police 48, 58–9
psychology 303
sentencing 145, 155–7
European Convention on Human Rights
dangerous and severe personality disorder 313
gender 247
fair hearing, right to a 1, 83, 94, 324
Human Rights Act 1998 1, 19, 83, 210
inhuman or degrading treatment 1, 323, 325
liberty and security, right to 1, 83
models of criminal justice process 90–1
police 35, 68
prisoners’ right to vote 1–2
private and family life, right to respect for 277, 339
probation 29
punishment 141
victims 210
European Union 1, 11, 17–18
Evidence see also Forensic science
evidence-based policy and practice 91, 146, 149–50, 309
eyewitnesses 303–4
police 39, 52, 65, 84, 98–9
prosecution 84–8, 90–1, 94
sentencing 146, 149–50
trial process 105–8, 111–14, 116–21
victims 205, 211–13
youth justice 229, 239
Expert evidence 84, 298, 301–2, 304, 308, 322, 324–31, 336–7, 341
Eyewitness evidence 303–4


F
Fair hearing, right to a 1, 83, 94, 324
Fingerprints 323–4, 335–6, 339, 342
Forensic science 322–42 see also DNA profiling
courts and trial process 325–31, 336–7
historical background 322–3
prosecutor's fallacy 337
psychology 298
Forensic Science Service (FSS) 75, 326


G
Gender 48, 247–61
custodial sentences 157, 251, 253
magistrates 109, 112, 157, 258
mental health 191, 254, 256
offenders, women as 99–100, 247–58
police 48–9, 60, 63, 256, 258–9
prisons 18, 190–2, 195, 247, 251–5, 259, 286
professions, women in criminal justice 247–8, 258–60
race and ethnicity 274–5, 286
sentencing 145, 156–7, 248, 250–6
victims 203, 205, 215, 247–8, 255–8
youth justice 250–1
Globalisation 17–18, 45, 73–5
Good Lives Model 310–11
Guilty pleas 86, 117–20, 147, 330, 251, 330


H
Hate crime 48, 271
Home Office 5, 12, 44, 45–6, 51
Hot spots policing 49–51
Human Rights Act 1998 1, 19, 83, 210


I
Incapacitation 128–9, 148, 194
Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) 7, 46–7, 279–80
Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection 189, 314
Inhuman or degrading treatment 1, 323, 325
Inquisitorial systems 88–9, 213
Intelligence-led policing 34, 49–51, 53
investigative psychology 299–304


J
Judges
adversarial system 88, 106
Crown Court 113–14
District Judges 108, 112–13, 118
forensic science 324–5, 330–1, 336–7
psychology 303–6
trial process 88, 105–8, 111–16, 118–21
Just deserts 134–5, 166, 227–8
Justice by geography 100, 112, 152
Justices’ Clerks 108


L
Labelling 20, 208
Legal advice, right to 95–6
Legal permissiveness 58, 66–8
Liberty and security, right to 1, 83


M
Magistrates’ courts 105, 108–13
District Judges 108, 112–13, 118
discrimination and equality 108–10, 112, 155–7, 258
Justices’ Clerks 108
Magistrates 108–11, 113
summary jurisdiction 108, 111–12, 115–18
Managerialism 10, 14, 17, 20–1, 26–7, 91–2, 241
Mental health 10, 311–14
gender 191, 254, 256
hospitals 8, 312–13
prison 312–13
psychology 299, 307, 310–14
race and ethnicity 275, 288
victims 212
youth justice 24, 275
Ministry of Justice (MoJ) 5–6, 12, 108–9
Miscarriages of justice 7, 62, 84, 94, 302–3, 322–4, 329, 333
Mode of trial 115–19
Models of process 89–91


National DNA Database (NDNAD) 334, 338–9, 342
National Offender Management Service (NOMS) 6, 27, 164, 168, 171–2, 255, 310
Northern Ireland
Diplock Courts 120–1
institutions and agencies 5–6
police and policing 42, 48, 57–8, 65, 71, 74–8
restorative justice 139–40, 229–41
victims 206
youth justice 222, 225, 229–31


O
Offender Behaviour Programmes 18, 27, 173, 235, 239, 252–5
Offender profiling 299, 300–2
Out of Court Disposals (OOCDs) 65, 68, 70


P
Parole 7, 150, 163–5, 211
Parsimony principle 127, 134
Penalty Notices for Disorder (PNDs) 68, 69, 70
Plea bargaining 87, 117, 120, 214, 304, 330
Police and policing 34–53
accountability 5, 28, 44, 46–7, 76, 273
complaints 7, 46–7, 278–81
culture 37, 39, 48–52, 58–70, 74, 77–8
cuts 36, 52–3, 57, 73–5, 92
discretion 44, 58, 62–4, 66–8, 95–9, 267, 269, 281
evidence 39, 52, 65, 84, 98–9
future controversies and challenges 52–3
gender 48–9, 60, 63, 256, 258–9
history and development 34–7, 40–2, 44, 58, 72–3
legal permissiveness 58, 66–8
legitimacy 22, 40, 48, 68, 273
organisation and governance 5, 40–3, 44–5, 58, 62–6, 73, 77
PACE and codes 84, 92, 96–9, 301–2
Police and Crime Commissioners 28, 34, 36, 45–6, 57
powers 68–70
practice and context 47–78
private sector and outsourcing 34, 38, 41, 57–8, 61, 71–8, 92
psychology 297, 299–304
race and ethnicity 35, 47–9, 60–1, 63, 68–9, 98–9, 268–70, 273–81, 289–90
role and mandate 36–40, 46, 53, 58–9, 63–8
social groups, disproportionate impact on 57–64, 68–70, 77
strategies 49–52
street and summary justice 67–8
technology, use of 40, 50–3, 58
use of force 35, 39, 60–1
Police and Crime Commissioners 28, 34, 36, 45–6, 57
Policy 17–30
managerialism 10, 14, 17, 20–1, 26–7, 91–2, 241
prisons 185–7, 194–5
race and ethnicity 288
sentencing 145, 148–50
victims 9–10, 202–3, 207, 209
youth justice 222, 227, 230–2, 237–42
Popular punitiveness 2, 10, 21, 127, 145, 148–9, 172–4, 190, 203
Presumption of innocence 83, 90, 118, 339
Prisons 6, 8, 181–97
class and education 190–1
gender 18, 190–2, 195, 247, 251–5, 259, 286
historical background 181–5, 195
mental health 312–14
overcrowding 11, 148, 152, 164, 183, 186, 188–90, 193–5
population 11, 30, 164–8, 172–5, 186–94, 285
privatisation and outsourcing 7–8, 185, 192–4
psychology 298, 307–8
race and ethnicity 2, 187, 195, 267–8, 285, 290
religion 285
riots 186
standards 11, 18, 186
vote, right to 1–2
vulnerable people 307–8
youth justice 185, 187–8, 192, 223, 233–6
Private and family life, right to respect for 277, 339
Private sector and outsourcing
managerialism 10, 26–7, 91–2
police 34, 38, 41, 57–8, 61, 71–8, 92
prisons 7–8, 185, 192–4
sentencing 26, 164–5, 172, 175
Probation 6, 21, 26–30, 91, 162–5, 168, 173–5, 260, 283–4
Prosecution process 83–101
agencies 85–8
decision-making, shaping 92–3
defendants, rights of 83, 85, 94–7
differential treatment 98–100
discretion 92–3
evidence 84–8, 90–1, 94
managerialism 91–2
models of process 89–91
restrictions on suspects’/defendants’ rights 97–8
Psychology 297–315
courts and trials 297–9, 306–8
forensic science 298
historical background 297–9
mental health 299, 307, 310–14
police 297, 299–304
prison 298, 307–8
vulnerable people 299, 302–3, 305, 307–8
’What Works’ agenda 308–14
Public protection agenda 10, 24–5, 84, 146, 150–1, 195, 312–13
Punishment 126–41 see also Prisons; Sentencing
abolitionism 126–7, 135–8, 140
consequentialism 126–32, 136
courts and trial process 107
crime control 89
deterrence 52, 128, 130–2, 146, 148–51, 185, 194, 277, 283
incapacitation 128–9, 148, 194
justification and legitimacy 126–41
just deserts 134–5, 166, 227–8
policy 22–3, 30, 145
redress 137, 139, 140
rehabilitation 20, 27, 129–30, 138, 148, 150–1, 185, 189, 233, 308
reprobation 133
restorative justice 137–40, 214–15, 226, 229–31, 234, 236, 239
retributivism 127, 132–5, 136, 194


Race 267–90 see also Ethnicity; Racism
courts, pre-trial and trial processes 109, 156, 281–2, 306
culture 267, 274–5, 287, 289–90
custodial sentencing 156, 282–3
gender 274–5, 286
historical and social context 268–70
mental health 275, 288
multiculturalism and measurement 269–70
offenders, minorities as 98–9, 267–70, 273–88
prisons 2, 187, 195, 287–8
professions/practitioners, minorities as criminal justice 280–1, 288–90
religion 267, 269–70, 272, 277, 280, 285, 287–8
sentencing 145, 155–6, 281–8
victims 205, 207, 215, 271–3
youth justice 275
Racism 267–90 see also Ethnicity; Race
institutional racism 61, 268, 280, 287
police 35, 47–9, 61, 63, 268, 280, 287
punishment 135
Reassurance policing 49–50
Redress 137, 139, 140
Rehabilitation 20, 27, 129–30, 138, 148, 150–1, 185, 189, 233, 308
Religion 267, 269–70, 272, 277, 280, 285, 287–8
Reoffending 13, 92, 131, 150, 171, 190–2, 196–7, 241, 275, 283, 308–9
Reprobation 133
Restorative justice 137–40, 214–15, 226, 229–31, 234, 236, 239
Retributivism 127, 132–5, 136, 194
Right to silence 94, 281
Risk Assessment 18, 24, 29, 93, 129, 168, 190, 254–5, 285, 298, 309


S
Scotland
Children's Hearings system 226–7, 238–42, 250–1
institutions and agencies 5–6
police 42, 57–8, 65, 71, 74–5
prisons 11, 188–9, 193, 255
victims 206
youth justice 6, 222, 225–8, 230–1, 237–42, 250–1
Sentencing 145–58 see also Community sentences and alternatives to custody; Custodial sentences; Prisons
consistency 146, 148, 151–7, 248–52, 282–3
discounts 119–20, 147
discretion 148, 152, 170, 172–4
evidence 146, 149–50
guidelines 30, 117, 119–20, 148, 153–5
mandatory sentences 149–51, 189
media 2–3, 190
mitigating and aggravating factors 146–8
policy 145, 148–50
popular punitiveness 145, 148–9, 172–4, 190
purpose 107
race and ethnicity 145, 155–6, 281–8
suspended sentences 150, 163–4, 172, 174, 253
tariff 147, 163, 169, 251, 253
victims 214–15
youth justice 233–42
Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) 24–5
Silence, right to 94, 281
Socio-economic groups see Class and socio-economic groups
Special measures for victims/witnesses 212–13, 305
Stop and search 68–9, 70, 98–100, 268, 270, 276–8, 281
Surveillance 10–11, 20, 25, 36, 73, 169, 184, 248, 270, 325, 339
Suspended sentences 150, 163–4, 172, 174, 253


T
Technology, use of 40, 50–3, 58 see also DNA profiling; Forensic science
Terrorism 17–20, 40, 50–3, 58, 67–8, 73, 120–1, 277 see also Forensic science
Trial process see Courts and trial process


U
Utilitarianism 127–32


V
Victims 202–17
defendants, rights of 83–4
democratisation 22
discontinuance 86–7
discrimination and ideal/worthy victims 202, 204–5, 210
evidence 205, 211–13
human rights 210
identification and support 202, 204–14, 256–7
information and explanations for victims 211–12
mental health 212
participation, lack of 214–15
policy 9–10, 202–3, 207, 209
race and ethnicity 205, 207, 215, 271–3
restorative justice 137–40, 215
rights of victims 9–10, 209–11
secondary victimisation 204, 212
sentencing 214–15
surveys 206, 215–16, 256, 271–2
victims’ movement 202, 203, 204, 209–10
vulnerability and intimidation 212–14, 215–16
Voluntary Sector 6–7, 26, 28, 37–8, 164–5, 172, 175, 231–2, 256, 260, 298
Vulnerable people 212–16, 299, 302–3, 305, 307–8


W
’What works’ agenda 91, 130, 166, 260, 284–5
Women see Gender


Youth justice 222–43
actuarialism 226, 228–9
cautions 70
custodial sentences 241
evidence 229, 239
gender 250–1
historical background 222–4
justice 226, 227–8
mental health 24, 275
prisons 185, 187–8, 192, 223, 233–6
race and ethnicity 275
restorative justice 139–40, 214–15, 226, 229–31, 234, 236, 239
risk 24, 229, 234, 241
sentencing and courts 233–42
Youth Justice Agency 231
Youth Justice Board and Youth Offending Teams 6, 232, 234–6, 275


Z
Zero tolerance policing 49