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(p. 537) 18. Countermeasures and Sanctions 

(p. 537) 18. Countermeasures and Sanctions
(p. 537) 18. Countermeasures and Sanctions

Nigel D White

and Ademola Abass

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date: 26 February 2020

This chapter focuses on the issue of enforcement by means of non-forcible measures. Two legal regimes are considered: non-forcible countermeasures taken by States (countermeasures) and non-forcible measures taken by international organizations (sanctions). The discussions cover the emergence of a restricted doctrine of countermeasures as the modern acceptable form of self-help; the partial centralization of coercion in international organizations; the problems within each of these regimes along with the limitations placed upon their application; the co-existence of countermeasures based on a traditional view of international relations, alongside the post-1945 development of centralized institutional responses; State and institutional practices that lie between the basic right of a State to take countermeasures to remedy an internationally wrongful act, and the power of international organizations to impose sanctions in certain circumstances; the legality of the continued use by States of non-forcible reprisals, retorsion, and wider forms of economic coercion; and collective countermeasures imposed either multilaterally or institutionally.

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