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(p. 571) 12. Article 9: Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion 

(p. 571) 12. Article 9: Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion
(p. 571) 12. Article 9: Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion

David Harris

, Michael O’Boyle

, Ed Bates

, Carla Buckley

, and Peter Cumper

Page of

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date: 15 January 2021

This chapter discusses Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which covers forms of both religious and non-religious belief. Few articles of the Convention have generated as much controversy as Article 9, from complaints about curbs on religious dress and displays of religious symbols to conflicts over faith at the workplace. In the past two decades, the Court has made important strides in formulating its own guidelines in relation to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.

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