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(p. 111) 6. Essential Features of a Valid Contract 1: Offer and Acceptance 

(p. 111) 6. Essential Features of a Valid Contract 1: Offer and Acceptance
(p. 111) 6. Essential Features of a Valid Contract 1: Offer and Acceptance

James Marson

and Katy Ferris


Note: An update has been made available on the Online Resource Centre (April 2016).

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date: 30 March 2020

This chapter discusses the enforcement of EU laws in domestic courts and at the Court of Justice of the European Union. Enforcement of EU law is a vital topic for businesses as it provides access to rights for affected individuals—such as workers—where the State has neglected its duty of transposition of the law. It also facilitates the EC Commission, the guardian of the Treaty, with mechanisms to hold recalcitrant Member States to account where they have failed in their duties under the treaty. With EU laws, enforcement takes place on two levels—enforcement at the EU and domestic levels. At the EU level, the Commission initiates enforcement proceedings against a Member State alleged to be breaching its EU obligations and the case is decided upon by the Court of Justice. At the domestic level, enforcement involves the domestic courts hearing cases where EU laws should be given effect.

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