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9. Trial by judge and jury  

control models, because it is used in the most serious cases such as murder and rape. A high rate of guilty verdicts is thus essential to the strategy of effective crime control. The deterrent

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5. Courts and the trial process  

Steven Cammiss

carefully because the cases which appear in the two courts differ markedly. In 2010–11, the acquittal rate (including cases where judges and magistrates rule there is no case to answer) was

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7. Prosecutions and constructing guilt  

of policy, double or treble the number of cases prosecuted, but to do so would be at the cost of other regulatory activities deemed essential.’ 205 Lack of resources also means that

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15. Forensic science and criminal justice  

Paul Roberts

experts’ evidence and pursue additional lines of scientific inquiry in appropriate cases. It is essential, in an adversarial system of criminal justice, that the jury gets to hear both

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11. When things go wrong in the criminal justice process  

to grasp quickly the essential issues in those applications it receives. The Legal Aid Agency (LAA) now funds lawyers to conduct an ‘initial screening’ of a case, not normally exceeding

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12. Victims, the accused and the future of criminal justice  

the minority of cases that get that far) requires the presentation of a case. All cases are constructions, and become the property of the side that built it. Cases often become far

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8. Summary justice in the magistrates’ court  

the duty solicitor once per case. These cases are frequently dealt with at that one hearing. Non-imprisonable cases are not covered, and for most cases that are adjourned, the defendant

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4. Detention in the police station  

questioning of suspects 5 and 6) set a threshold whereby essential work should be carried out in at least 70% of all cases. A total of 44% of firms in their research failed this test

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4. Utility and deterrence  

may already be an essential element of the modus operandi of some crimes, as in the case of the modern suicide bomber. The Royal Commission found an American case where a man drove

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1. The aims and values of ‘criminal justice’  

were served by nearly all of the defendants in these cases. The causes of the miscarriages of justice varied from case to case, but common features were the suppression by the police

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5. Police questioning of suspects  

interviews in serious cases and concluded ‘in all cases discrepancies [were identified] between the official transcripts and the audio recordings. In some of the cases the inaccuracies were

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6. Non-interrogatory evidence and covert policing  

Ed Cape

simply hidden, and if that is the case, most are unregulated. 6.4.2.2 The use of informers Informants are, and always have been, an essential source of police knowledge … every

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4. Utility and deterrence  

may already be an essential element of the modus operandi of some crimes, as in the case of the modern suicide bomber. The Royal Commission did find an American case where a man drove

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8. Justice in the modern prison  

rights cases may now be brought in the domestic courts, this does not mean that all will succeed, as many cases taken to Strasbourg in the past by prisoners failed. While cases on access

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7. Impact on victims and offenders  

these were exceptional cases, and in other cases, for example, that of Angela Babington, 51 no reduction was given. The judicial comment in an appeal case in 2015 included the argument

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10. Inequalities and criminal justice  

judicial benches, meaning that cases involving women tend to be viewed from dominant male perspectives, which can skew decisions. This is particularly the case in relation to sexual offences

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2. Structuring sentencing  

1 July 2003. Some of the Convention issues were considered in the case of Ocalan v Turkey in 2003. In this case, the leader of the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) was given a death sentence

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8. Justice in the modern prison  

European Court of Human Rights. In some cases, settlements have also been reached in anticipation of the Court’s decisions. However, in other cases, notably voting rights, successive UK

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13. Racism and ethnicity in the criminal justice process  

Alpa Parmar

processes involved in case progression. They found that discontinuance rates for cases involving defendants from minority ethnic groups were higher than for cases involving White defendants

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3. Arrest  

Alpa Parmar

where there are victims). If the victim’s evidence is essential to any consequent prosecution (which is by no means always the case) then there may seem to be little point making an arrest