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4. State Responsibility, Treaty Compliance, and Dispute Settlement  

Border Activities Case. 3 The main reason for discussing state responsibility for environmental damage is because an understanding of its limitations is essential to an explanation

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3. Rights and Obligations of States Concerning Protection of the Environment  

degree of environmental protection and so does the case law of the 1950 European Convention of Human Rights (‘ECHR’). 66 The essential point of each of these examples is that, while

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5. Non-State Actors: Environmental Rights, Liability, and Crimes  

information. 228 In appropriate cases there is a duty to inform, not simply a right of access. In Guerra , Italy’s failure to provide ‘essential information’ about the severity and

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1. International Law and the Environment  

Relevant cases include the Chorzow Factory Case (Indemnity) (Jurisdiction) PCIJ Ser. A, No. 8/9 (1927) 31; Corfu Channel Case , ICJ Reports (1949) 18; South West Africa Case (Second

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13. International Trade and Environmental Protection  

Standards Case and the Shrimp‑Turtle Case. 50 The latter is particularly relevant because it involved a trade measure similar to the one employed in the Tuna‑Dolphin Cases. As such

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10. International Watercourses: Environmental Protection and Sustainable Use  

Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Dam Case , ICJ Reports (1997) 7; Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay Case , ICJ Reports (2010) 14; Border Activities/San Juan River Cases , ICJ Reports (2015) 665

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9. Prevention of Marine Pollution  

the Convention does establish some important and concrete principles. The essential point is that in these cases states must give effect to or apply rules and standards no less onerous

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7. Nuclear Energy and the Environment  

is now difficult to justify in the case of the highly developed nuclear industry in Western Europe, North America, or Japan, it remains an essential element of international efforts to

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8. International Regulation of Toxic and Persistent Pollutants and Waste  

this phrase has been contested and its application has in practice been determined on a case-by-case basis. This flexibility has allowed the dumping regime to be extended to address emerging

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2. International Governance and the Formulation of Environmental Law and Policy  

Nature (‘WWF’) and the Basel Action Network. Knowing who participates in such meetings is essential to an understanding of the politics of international law-making. In some treaty bodies

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6. Climate Change and Atmospheric Pollution  

than the net importers of pollutants would have liked, but only through compromise of essential interests on both sides could such widespread adherence have been achieved. 63 However

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12. Conservation of Marine Living Resources  

and Jan Mayen Cases , 25 EEZ boundaries drawn by the International Court cut across established fishing grounds. Rejecting American arguments in the Gulf of Maine Case based on the

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11. Conservation of Nature, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity  

639 the implementation of which requires a case-by-case approach. Arguably the flexibility to maintain a multidisciplinary case-by-case approach is provided by the 2000 Cartagena Protocol