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Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

3. Establishing Liability in Principle: Duty of Care  

This chapter discusses the following: the duty concept and the elements of the tort of negligence; formulating the duty of care; kinds of damage; the manner of infliction; and the way in which the notion of duty confines liability by reference to the nature of the parties involved.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

3. The Standard of Care in Negligence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the reader to the fault principle or negligence standard, along with its positive and negative implications. This chapter first asks. ‘What is negligence?’. It covers the standard of care and, within this, it looks at the objective standard. The chapter goes on to explore the way in which professional skill and care are assessed in the medical context. It also considers reasonable risk-taking and the absence of evidence of fault.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

3. Breach of Duty  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses breach of duty. To establish breach of duty, it must be determined that there was some misbehaviour by the defendant himself. The chapter addresses the question of whether the defendant behaved reasonably. It considers factors such as foreseeability of harm objective standard, normal practice, utility of conduct, cost of prevention, conduct of others, and emergencies. It then turns to the identification of the breach.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

2. Introduction to the tort of negligence  

The chapter begins by mapping and explaining the historical development of the tort of negligence, and some of the key themes underpinning the tort, before placing the discussion in the context of the modern law of negligence. The chapter then outlines the essential ingredients of a claim in negligence—a duty of care, a breach of that duty and the damage caused by that breach—before going on to explore these in practice through a close examination of the first instance judgment in X & Y v London Borough of Hounslow [2008].

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

8. Breach of duty: the standard of care  

This chapter focuses on breach of duty. Breach occurs where a defendant has fallen below the particular standard of care demanded by the law. This is largely an objective test and is determined by comparing the actions of the defendant to those imagined to be done in the same circumstances by the so-called ‘reasonable man’. The questions to be answered are how the defendant ought to have behaved (what was the required standard of care) and how the defendant did behave (did they in fact fall below that standard).

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

2. Introduction to the tort of negligence  

The chapter begins by mapping and explaining the historical development of the tort of negligence, and some of the key themes underpinning the tort, before placing the discussion in the context of the modern law of negligence. The chapter then outlines the essential ingredients of a claim in negligence—a duty of care, a breach of that duty and the damage caused by that breach—before going on to explore these in practice through a close examination of the first instance judgment in X & Y v London Borough of Hounslow [2008].

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

8. Breach of duty: the standard of care  

This chapter focuses on the second of the requirements necessary to establish a claim in the tort of negligence—breach of duty. Breach occurs where a defendant has fallen below the particular standard of care demanded by the law. This is largely an objective test and is determined by comparing the actions of the defendant to those imagined to be done in the same circumstances by the so-called ‘reasonable man’. The questions to be answered are how the defendant ought to have behaved (what was the required standard of care) and how the defendant did behave (did they in fact fall below that standard).

Book

Cover Tort Law
All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Tort Law: Text, Cases, and Materials combines incisive commentary with carefully selected extracts from primary and secondary materials to provide a balance of support and encouragement. This volume starts by introducing the fundamental principles of the subject before moving on to discuss more challenging issues, hoping to encourage a full understanding of the subject and an appreciation of the more complex debates surrounding the law of tort. The text starts by providing an overview. Various torts are then arranged along a spectrum from intentional torts, through negligence, to stricter liabilities. Also considered are issues relating to damages, compensation, limitation, and vicarious liability. After introducing intentional torts, the book looks at the tort of negligence. Chapters also cover nuisance and duties relating to land and defamation and privacy. Finally, stricter liabilities are examined such as product liability.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

5. Employers’ Liability and Vicarious Liability  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the law on employers’ liability and vicarious liability. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: tort of negligence; statutory duties, and the effect of breach of statutory duty; the Employers’ Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969; vicarious liability, and specifically The Catholic Child Welfare Society and others v Various Claimants and The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools [2012] UKSC 56; and defences to negligence.

Book

Cover Tort Law

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Tort Law encourages the reader to understand, engage with and critically reflect upon tort law. The book first discusses the tort of negligence, looking at the basic principles of the duty of care and at special duty problems relating to omissions and acts of third parties, psychiatric harm, public bodies and economic loss. It also covers breach, causation and remoteness and defences to negligence. The book then considers occupiers’, product and employers’ liability and breach of statutory duty before moving on to look at personal torts and explaining trespass to the person, defamation and the invasion of privacy. It next discusses land torts and and finally looks at liability (including vicarious liability), damages and limitations.

Book

Cover Tort Law

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Tort Law encourages the reader to understand, engage with and critically reflect upon tort law. The book contains five parts. Part I, which is about the tort of negligence, looks at the basic principles of the duty of care and at special duty problems relating to: omissions and acts of third parties, psychiatric harm, public bodies and economic loss. It also covers breach, causation and remoteness, and defences to negligence. Part II considers occupiers’, product and employers’ liability and breach of statutory duty. Part III looks at personal torts and explains trespass to the person, defamation and the invasion of privacy. Part IV concerns land torts and Part V looks at liability (including vicarious liability), damages and limitations.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins by providing examples of torts. It then discusses the aims of the law of torts, the most significant being compensation and deterrence. Part of the justification for a tort is that it identifies what actions should be avoided and deters people from engaging in them. It is essential to know that action is wrongful, but a tort action may over-deter or under-deter. It may over-deter where the perception of the chance of liability is exaggerated. It may under-deter where either the chances of somebody suing to enforce their rights are small, or where the consequences to the individual tortfeasor may be slight. Originally tort was about ‘shifting’ or ‘transferring’ the loss from the victim to the defendant (corrective justice). The defendant themselves paid compensation to the victim. However, those days are gone and we are now in an era of ‘loss distribution’. In other words, it is not the defendant himself who pays, but it will be their, or their employer’s, insurer. The chapter then considers the study of torts. Tort law is almost wholly a case-driven subject and therefore a good knowledge of the cases and what they stand for is essential. The chapter presents three steps to studying cases.

Chapter

Cover Lunney & Oliphant's Tort Law

6. Defences to Negligence  

Donal Nolan and Ken Oliphant

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

6. Defences to Negligence  

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant's claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

7. Breach of duty: the standard of care  

Once it has been established that there is a sufficient relationship between the parties to establish a duty, the question then arises whether the defendant has been in breach of this duty. This involves a number of issues, many of which involve the judgment of the ‘reasonable man’. The defendant’s behaviour must have fallen below the level of the standard of care owed, which defines the level of safety a claimant is entitled to expect. The ‘reasonable man’ may give the impression of certainty where there is none, for whether it is reasonable to take a certain risk involves questions of economic and social policy which are rarely expressed in the law reports.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

14. The tort of negligence  

This chapter focuses on the tort of negligence. It explains that under the English legal system, negligence can be defined as a breach of a legal duty to take care which results in damage to the claimant. It suggests that negligence is the most important tort and is central in allowing victims to obtain compensation for injuries that they suffer. The chapter discusses in detail the four requirements for establishing negligence, namely the establishment of a duty of care, breach of duty, causation, and remoteness. This chapter also discusses the current test to establish a duty of care which includes foreseeability of damage, proximity, and fairness of the imposition of a duty.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law aims to provide the skills for success in exams in this area of law. It starts off by looking at negligence in terms of duty of care, breach of duty and causation and remoteness of damage. It then looks at employers’ liability and vicarious liability. It also considers product and occupiers liabilities. It examines intentional torts. It looks at the case Rylands v Fletcher. General defences and damages are also considered. Finally, it provides mix topic questions and looks at coursework assessments.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

11. The Tort of Negligence  

This chapter discusses the difference between the law of torts and contract and criminal law. It explores the tort of negligence, considering the necessary elements for a claim of negligence, namely the defendant owed the claimant a duty of care, the defendant breached that duty of care, and reasonably foreseeable damage was caused by the breach of duty. The chapter considers the special requirements for the recovery of pure economic loss and for loss as a result of psychiatric injuries, looking at both primary and secondary victims. The principles relating to breach of a duty of care, including the standard of care, are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the final element, considering the need for a causal link between the breach of duty by the defendant and the damage suffered by the claimant.