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Chapter

This chapter provides a general introduction to the subject of terrorism and poses a series of important questions about how to define terrorism against a backdrop of contemporary fears in a risk-averse society. It begins by casting doubt on simple, typically narrow, definitions of terrorism, before then going on to deconstruct the climate of fear currently surrounding the majority of research in this area. The chapter looks at current counter-terrorism measures and recently invoked anti-terrorist legislation. It argues that, if governments continue to adopt a cavalier attitude towards civil liberties, they face the risk of playing into the very hands of those who promote and perpetrate political violence.

Chapter

This chapter examines how ideas and concepts derived from criminology can inform our understandings of terrorism and counter-terrorism in insightful and innovative ways. Terrorism is designed as communicative violence that seeks to work by sending messages intended to influence the views of a wider public. The analysis attends to how: terrorism has been constructed as a social and political problem in the contemporary era; the role that has been attributed to extremism and processes of radicalization; and, the extent these influence the framing and conduct of counter-terrorism responses. The particular perspective set out accents how terrorist campaigns and counter-terrorist responses routinely develop in interaction with each other.

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Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines terrorism and State violence. It addresses two key questions: Is terrorism criminal? What issues are raised by the responses of governments to their sharply heightened perception of terrorism as a significant threat? On the first question, it is argued that while most acts seen as terrorist can fall under, and be dealt with by normal criminal legislation, there are at least two large areas of complication and ambiguity. On the second question of the legislative responses aimed at controlling terrorism, the chapter focuses on the extent to which, both nationally and internationally, it becomes impossible for governments to avoid confronting the crucial issue of balance.

Chapter

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

Terrorism, as in the case of torture and aggression, is often treated as outside the ‘core crimes’ bracket of deserving international criminal adjudication. Many states believe that terrorism is better investigated and prosecuted at the state level by individual or joint enforcement and judicial action. This view is strengthened by the feeling that the concept of terrorism is still controversial at the international level because it is widely held that there is no agreement yet on what some states deem to be a necessary exception to the crime. This chapter examines the reasons why the traditional wisdom is that a generally agreed definition on terrorism as an international crime is lacking. It argues instead that many factors point to the existence of such agreed definition, at least for terrorism in time of peace. The legal ingredients of terrorism as an international crime are therefore analyzed.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter first considers the definition of ‘terrorism’. It then turns to laws which the UK government has put in place to attempt to deal with this area, including proscription of organizations, modification of police powers, and various forms of restrictions on movement, including ‘control orders’ and their successors — terrorism prevention and investigation measures.

Chapter

This chapter outlines the future agenda for international human rights and provides an overview of some is-sues that are likely to characterize the evolution of international human rights in the future. These include non-State actors, including businesses.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of la and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter considers the application of human rights in the special circumstances of the threat of terrorism and counter-terrorism measures taken in the UK. It considers the compatibility of the Terrorism Act 2000, and other subsequent measures, with human rights. This includes matter such as the definition of terrorism, police powers under the Act (such as random stop and search) and measures, such as TPIMs, to control terrorist suspects. The impact of these measures on the right to liberty and on private life are important themes. The chapter also considers the effect of such measures on the right to a fair hearing (in Articles 5 and 6). These special powers are often controversial giving rise, as they do, to important tensions between the rule of law and the duty on states to uphold the safety and security of the population.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers due process, liberty, and security of the person, and the right to a fair trial, including articles 5, 6, and 7 of the ECHR and their application to matters such as prison discipline, police powers, and the fight against terrorism.

Chapter

Alpa Parmar

This chapter examines how far the police are, and should be, allowed to infringe the freedom of the individual through arrest. It considers the legal rules that the police must follow when deciding to, and during, arrest, as well as their effectiveness in controlling the use of this power. This chapter considers the purpose of arrest and what reasons for arrest are lawful. The use of arrest in the context of suspected terrorism is explored, and ‘citizen arrest’ is also evaluated. Discussion about how the police use their discretion when exercising the power of arrest is situated in our understanding of police ‘working rules’. The chapter shows that arrest is used for many purposes, some more legitimate than others.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of la and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter considers the application of human rights in the special circumstances of the threat of terrorism and counter-terrorism measures taken in the UK. It considers the compatibility of the Terrorism Act 2000, and other subsequent measures, with human rights. This includes matters such as the definition of terrorism, police powers under the Act (such as random stop and search), and measures, such as TPIMs, to control terrorist suspects. The impact of these measures on the right to liberty and on private life are important themes. The chapter also considers the effect of such measures on the right to a fair hearing (in Articles 5 and 6). These special powers are often controversial giving rise, as they do, to important tensions between the rule of law and the duty on states to uphold the safety and security of the population.

Chapter

Martin Scheinin

This chapter first addresses the question of whether terrorism constitutes a violation of human rights, or whether the notion of human rights violations can only be applied to action by states, and then considers challenges to the applicability of human rights law in the fight against terrorism, particularly since 9/11. It focuses on the notion of terrorism, and in particular the risks posed to human rights protection by vague or over-inclusive definitions of terrorism. The main section of the chapter deals with some of the major challenges posed by counter-terrorism measures to substantive human rights protections. It is argued that the unprecedented post-9/11 wave of counter-terrorism laws and measures that infringed upon human rights was a unique situation, and that governments and intergovernmental organizations are realizing that full compliance with human rights in the fight against terrorism is not only morally and legally correct but is also the most effective way of combating terrorism in the long term.

Chapter

This chapter examines the use of human rights in the domestic courts of the UK. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 considers the main features of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Section 3 looks at the issue of judicial deference to the executive and Parliament in human rights situations. Sections 4 and 5 examine two case studies. The first of these is the litigation brought by Shabina Begum challenging her school’s decision preventing her from wearing a jilbab to school. The second case study considers the litigation that followed the enactment of Pt IV of the Anti-terrorism, Crime, and Security Act 2001, and the challenges to control orders imposed under the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005.

Book

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young, and Mandy Burton

Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive overview of the criminal justice system in England and Wales, as well as thought-provoking insights into how it might be altered and improved. Tracing the procedures surrounding the apprehension, investigation, and trial of suspected offenders, this book is the ideal companion for law and criminology students alike. As the authors combine the relevant legislation with fresh research findings and policy initiatives, the resulting text is a fascinating blend of socio-legal analysis. Whilst retaining its authoritative treatment of the issues at the heart of criminal justice, the book has been fully updated with recent developments, including recent terrorism legislation and the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill. Students are aided by the addition of a new Online Resource Centre that directs them to related cases and current events, successfully highlighting the importance and ever-changing nature of the subject. In this, the book's fourth edition: an experienced new co-author, Dr. Mandy Burton, joins the writing team; the text features chapter summaries and selected further reading lists to support the student and encourage further research; the content of the book has been fully updated to include coverage of new legislation, case law, research and policy developments; and the text is informed by the authors' own specialist research into penalty notices for disorder and integrated domestic violence courts.

Chapter

This chapter explores the relationship between crime and religion, focusing in particular on jihadist religious violence. It is concerned to explain why the relationship between religion and violence is so contested and how it has been understood or, in some cases, explained away. It also addresses the construction of religion in criminology as a ‘prosocial’ social control mechanism, and goes on to sketch out how criminology can engage more fully and fruitfully with religious-based violence.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in A (and others) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56, House of Lords. This case concerned the Human Rights Act 1998, the willingness of the courts to engage with national security matters and, by extension, considered how key constitutional principles should shape the courts’ approach to the 1998 Act. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Questions of criminal law and criminal justice are increasingly becoming international, overcoming the confines of traditional jurisdictional constraints. This chapter traces these developments in order to examine what relevance criminology has had and may hold for understanding contemporary global issues. It examines, among other things, the impact of global interconnectedness on the nature of state sovereignty, particularly in light of challenges such as international terrorism, irregular migration, and transnational organized crime. By doing so, the chapter does not simply chart a demise of the state, as is sometimes assumed within studies of globalization. Instead, it proposes a more subtle, analytical and imaginary disconnection between crime, penality, and the nation state. Finally, the chapter addresses the rise of international forms of justice, particularly those articulated through human rights regimes, as well as the emerging challenges to them.

Book

Ruth Costigan and Richard Stone

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Textbook on Civil Liberties and Human Rights provides an account of this area of law. This work covers all the main topics in the field of civil liberties and human rights. It provides coverage of crucial areas such as police powers, freedom of expression, terrorism, and public order. A thematic approach helps readers to appreciate the overlap and interconnected nature of the subject, and the close association between the different articles of the European Convention. Topics new to this edition include: Austin v UK on kettling and the deprivation of liberty; von Hannover v Germany (No 2) and Springer v Germany on privacy; Othman (Abu Qatada) v UK on asylum and fair trial rights; O’Donoghue and Others v UK on the right to marry; the Supreme Court’s views in R v Gul on the definition of terrorism; the Court of Appeal’s rulings in Hall v Bull and Black v Wilkinson on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation where this conflicts with religious beliefs; Att Gen v Davey on contempt and the internet; and the Anti-Social Behaviour and Policing Act, which will replace ASBOs with Injunctions to Prevent Nuisance and Disorder.

Book

Martin Dixon, Robert McCorquodale, and Sarah Williams

Cases and Materials on International Law, a topical companion for study placing international law directly in the context of contemporary debate, offers broad coverage of international law, and is suitable for use alongside a range of course structures and teaching styles. The book provides readers with a comprehensive selection of case law extracts for their studies. Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. The book contains the essential cases and materials needed in order to understand and analyse the international legal order, providing notes on selected extracts to explain the complexities of the law. The sixth edition provides expanded coverage of topical areas such as: the use of force in Iraq and Syria and the threat of terrorism; international criminal law and the International Criminal Court; and developments in human rights and international environmental law. The new edition considers the perspectives of non-western and feminist scholars. It also updates core areas of international law, including sovereignty over territory and judicial sovereignty, the law of the sea, state responsibility, international legal personality and peaceful settlement.

Chapter

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter describes issues relating to the Human Rights Act 1998. The questions presented here deal with issues such as the response to terrorism; the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 on English law; whether the Human Rights Act 1998 should be replaced with a UK bill of rights; the Human Rights Act not changing parliamentary supremacy, but the courts being able to issue a declaration of incompatibility; and the effect of the Human Rights Act on individual rights.

Book

Katherine S. Williams

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Textbook on Criminology offers an engaging and wide-ranging account of crime and criminology, addressing the theoretical, practical, and political aspects of the subject. The clarity of approach makes it an ideal text for students wishing to gain a firm grasp of the fundamental issues, together with an appreciation of some of the complexities surrounding the study of criminology. The author deals with the major questions of criminology, such as: How do you define a crime? Why do people become criminals? How should we deal with criminals? Each question is studied from an objective and academic viewpoint and encourages greater social, political, and philosophical awareness of crime, criminals, and society's response to them. The text also maps out the changes in crime control and society's expectations in relation to it. For example, students will find the insightful chapter on terrorism and state violence to be of particular interest and relevance; established criminological theories are applied, and the author addresses issues such as political responses to terrorism and the reasons why people become terrorists. The text is ideal both for students studying towards a degree in criminology, and students opting to study criminology as part of another subject, such as law.