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Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

4. Fundamental Principles of Bank Supervision and the Lender of Last Resort—A Reconceptualization  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter examines the architecture and functions of bank supervision. Bank supervision is the process through which compliance with discussed prudential, conduct, and systemic regulations is safeguarded and enforced. It is normally exercised by public agencies that have the competence to approve the establishment and operation of credit institutions and monitor continuous compliance with the requisite regulatory framework. The same public bodies are also vested with remedial (early intervention) and enforcement powers in the event of a breach of any of the above. The chapter covers the fundamental principles of financial supervision; bank supervisors' accountability and judicial review; bankers' conduct, money laundering, and terrorist financing; and the central bank as the lender of last resort to the banking system.

Chapter

Cover Sentencing and Punishment

10. Punishment and rehabilitation in the community  

This chapter reviews the main options available to the sentencing court which do not entail immediate custody. It therefore deals with community orders as well as suspended prison sentences (see Chapter 7, section 7.5 for financial penalties). It discusses the tensions between imposing proportionate punishment and delivering rehabilitation programmes. It examines the policy aim of reducing reoffending through specifying in court orders requirements to control and rehabilitate the offender in the community, and discusses the theory and practice of rehabilitation that underpins these initiatives. However, because punishment and rehabilitation also take place in the community for those released from prison, this chapter examines supervision for prisoners released on licence. The chapter, therefore, covers the policy changes in relation to the work and remit of the Probation Service.

Book

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

David Harris, Michael O'Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This fourth edition of Law of the European Convention on Human Rights builds on the great strengths of earlier editions. An up-to-date account of Strasbourg case law and its underlying principles, this title facilitates an understanding of this key area of law. It explores the extent of the Convention’s influence upon the legal development of the contracting states, and reveals exactly how such a considerable impact has been achieved and maintained. It sets out and critically analyses the Strasbourg jurisprudence on each Convention article that constitutes the substantive guarantee, and examines the system of supervision. The Convention has effectively become the constitutional bill of rights for Europe, providing common human rights standards for the whole continent. National parliaments and courts must constantly look to the Convention when legislating and deciding cases, or run the risk of adverse Strasbourg judgments with which they must then comply. For all states, the Convention has been made enforceable in their national courts.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Book

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

David Harris, Michael O'Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla M. Buckley

This fifth edition of Law of the European Convention on Human Rights builds on the great strengths of earlier editions. An up-to-date account of Strasbourg case law and its underlying principles, this title facilitates an understanding of this key area of law. It explores the extent of the Convention’s influence upon the legal development of the contracting states, and reveals exactly how such a considerable impact has been achieved and maintained. It sets out and critically analyses the Strasbourg jurisprudence on each Convention Article that constitutes the substantive guarantee, and examines the system of supervision. The Convention is firmly established in Europe’s constitutional landscape, providing common human rights standards for the continent. National parliaments and courts must constantly look to the Convention when legislating and deciding cases, or run the risk of adverse Strasbourg judgments with which they must then comply. For all states, the Convention has been made enforceable in their national courts. The fifth edition takes account of Strasbourg jurisprudence responding to new human rights crises in Europe resulting from the erosion of the rule of law in some states, the Covid pandemic and recent inter-state armed conflict.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Banking Law and Regulation

7. European banking supervision and regulatory architecture  

Iris Chiu and Joanna Wilson

This chapter explores the European banking supervision and regulatory architecture. The aim of the introduction of European policy and law in bank regulation is was to build a single market in financial services and to give effect to the freedom of movement of capital. In the midst of the global financial crisis in 2008, the European Commission established a high-level group of experts chaired by Jacques de Larosière to recommend a blueprint for financial supervision in the EU going forward. The de Larosière Report provided a comprehensive analysis of the weaknesses in the financial sector in the EU and recommended stronger regulatory governance in many areas. The chapter then considers the Banking Union, a policy that introduces a new supervisory architecture for euro-area banks.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Family Law

11. The Law Relating to Children: Public Law and Adoption  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter deals with the public law relating to children, contained in Parts III, IV, and V of the Children Act 1989, and the law relating to adoption, under the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The questions contained in this chapter are a mixture of essay and problem questions that focus on: emergency protection for children, i.e. police protection, emergency protection orders, and local authority enquires; care, supervision, and education supervision orders; the difference between adoption and special guardianship orders and finally, the requirements and procedures for adoption.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

10. Industrial action  

This chapter considers the law relating to strikes and other industrial action including the important changes made by the Trade Union Act 2016. It deals with the historical development of common law and statute in this field to illuminate the current law. The relevance of the European Convention on Human Rights is considered. The tortious and criminal liabilities flowing from industrial action are considered, as well as the crucial immunity for tortious liability provided by the ‘golden formula’, including the exceptions to this immunity and the preconditions of complying with rules on balloting and notice of industrial action. Picketing is considered in relation to the many legal liabilities and the statutory immunity for some peaceful picketing. The granting of injunctions to stop industrial action is examined. The impact of industrial action on individual employees is considered in relation to their contractual rights and liabilities and the law of unfair dismissal.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

39. Punishment in the community: Evolution, expansion, and moderation  

Gwen Robinson and Fergus McNeill

This chapter examines the development and expansion of community sanctions and measures in the UK since the introduction of probation in the early twentieth century. After introducing the main types of punishment in the community (supervision; unpaid work; treatment and other activities; restrictions and prohibitions), it considers their evolution in relation to four main rationales: rehabilitation, reparation, management, and punitiveness. The chapter then reviews some key sociological perspectives on punishment in the community, focusing on work inspired by Foucault, Durkheim, and Marx. Finally, it provides an introduction to recent research on punishment in the community in other jurisdictions, particularly Europe and the USA. The chapter presents two main conclusions: firstly, that there is now substantial international evidence to suggest that the expansion of punishment in the community has failed to deliver reductions in the use of imprisonment; and secondly, that arguments for penal moderation should take into account the ‘painful’ character of community sanctions and measures.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

21. Specific enforcement  

This chapter looks at specific performance and injunctions. Specific enforcement is only available in limited circumstances. The adequacy of damages as a remedy must be addressed. Its availability is limited by issues of supervision and its general undesirability in relation to contracts for personal services. Its nature as an equitable remedy means that the courts have discretion and consideration is given to such matters as hardship, behaviour of the claimant, adequacy of consideration, and mutuality. An injunction may, in effect, enforce the performance of the contract. It may be used to prevent a breach of a negative undertaking or to order the undoing of a breach which has already occurred. An injunction may provide the means of securing relief until the trial of the main action.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

10. Industrial action  

Ian Smith, Owen Warnock, and Gemma Mitchell

This chapter considers the law relating to strikes and other industrial action, including the important changes made by the Trade Union Act 2016. It deals with the historical development of common law and statute in this field to illuminate the current law. The relevance of the European Convention on Human Rights is considered. The tortious and criminal liabilities flowing from industrial action are considered, as well as the crucial immunity for tortious liability provided by the ‘golden formula’, including the exceptions to this immunity and the preconditions of complying with rules on balloting and notice of industrial action. Picketing is considered in relation to the many legal liabilities and the statutory immunity for some peaceful picketing. The granting of injunctions to stop industrial action is examined. The impact of industrial action on individual employees is considered in relation to their contractual rights and liabilities and the law of unfair dismissal.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

17. Dissertations  

This chapter focuses on the range of different skills involved in the production of a dissertation. It begins by outlining the reasons for writing a dissertation. It then discusses the choice of dissertation topic and formulating a research question; writing a dissertation proposal; planning and organization; researching for a dissertation; and the writing process.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

17. Dissertations  

This chapter focuses on the range of different skills involved in the production of a dissertation. It begins by outlining the reasons for writing a dissertation. It then discusses the choice of dissertation topic and formulating a research question; writing a dissertation proposal; planning and organization; researching for a dissertation; and the writing process.

Book

Cover Family Law

Polly Morgan

Family Law illustrates the diverse applications of modern family law through real-world scenarios. It starts off by looking at marriage and civil partnership. It moves on to financial provision on divorce and cohabitants and remedies not dependent on divorce. It looks at financial support for children and the various protections in place for domestic abuse. Parenthood and parental responsibility are examined in detail. Children’s rights and welfare are also looked into. Finally, the book considers private law disputes and children and child protection in terms of state support and care, supervision, and adoption.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

22. Delegated Legislation  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter is concerned with the special features of the administrative power to legislate. The discussions cover the necessity of delegated legislation; the scope of administrative legislation; legal forms and characteristics; judicial review; publication; preliminary consultation; and parliamentary supervision.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

11. Duty of care, skill, and independent judgment  

In addition to their fiduciary obligations, directors are subject to duties of care and skill. This chapter discusses the statutory standard of care, skill, and diligence; the content of the duty; and the duty to exercise independent judgement. In looking at care and skill, key issues are the extent to which delegation is possible and the degree to which the delegating director must maintain a residual duty of supervision. The chapter considers the law’s expectations of executive and non-executive directors, including the level of knowledge that they must bring to bear and examines how the standard required reflects their differing roles in the management of the business.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

22. Delegated Legislation  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter is concerned with the special features of the administrative power to legislate. The discussions cover the necessity of delegated legislation; the scope of administrative legislation; legal forms and characteristics; judicial review; publication; preliminary consultation; and parliamentary supervision.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

38. Punishment in the community: evolution, expansion, and moderation  

Gwen Robinson and Fergus McNeill

This chapter examines the development and expansion of community sanctions and measures in the UK since the introduction of probation and parole in the early twentieth century. After introducing the main types of punishment in the community (supervision; unpaid work; treatment and other activities; restrictions and prohibitions), it considers their evolution in relation to four main rationales: rehabilitation, reparation, management, and punitiveness. The chapter then reviews some key sociological perspectives on punishment in the community, focusing on work inspired by Foucault, Durkheim, and Marx. Finally, it provides an introduction to recent research on punishment in the community in other jurisdictions, particularly Europe and the USA. The chapter presents two main conclusions: firstly, that there is now substantial international evidence to suggest that the expansion of punishment in the community has failed to deliver reductions in the use of imprisonment; and secondly, that arguments for penal moderation should take into account the ‘painful’ character of community sanctions and measures.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

23. Data protection: rights and obligations  

This chapter examines the rights of data subjects under GDPR (and UK GDPR) and the role of the state in supervising data controllers. It examines data subject rights including the subject access right and the right to correct and manage personal data. It deals with the development of the so-called right to be forgotten in the Mario Costeja González case and its application in cases such as NT1 & NT2 v Google. It examines the current supervisory regime including the role of the Information Commissioner’s Office and the enforcement rights of data subjects. Key cases, including Durant v The Financial Services Authority, Edem v IC & Financial Services Authority, Dawson-Damer v Taylor Wessing, and Ittihadieh v 5-11 Cheyne Gardens are discussed, and the chapter concludes by examining the enhanced enforcement rights awarded to the Information Commisioner’s Office by the General Data Protection Regulation in 2018.