1-11 of 11 Results

  • Keyword: reputation x
Clear all

Book

Cover Street on Torts

Christian Witting

Street on Torts provides a wide-ranging overview, and a clear and accurate explanation of tort law. The book consists of nine parts. Part I provides an introduction to the subject, including examination of protected interests in tort and the history of this branch of law beginning with the ancient trespass torts. Part II looks at negligent infringements of the person, property and financial interests, as well as examining the liability in negligence of public authorities. Part III looks at intentional invasions of interests in the person and property. Part IV looks at misrepresentation-based and general economic torts. Part V is about torts of strict or stricter liability (that is, where fault plays either no part or a lesser part in liability decisions) and includes consideration of nuisance and product liability. Part VI considers interests in reputation (ie defamation). Part VII is about actions in privacy. Part VIII looks at the misuse of process and public powers. The final part, Part IX, is about vicarious liability, parties, and remedies.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

20. Defamation: foundational principles  

This chapter examines the foundational principles of defamation in tort law. It explains that there are two types of defamation, libel and slander, the former of which concerns ‘permanent’ and the latter of which concerns other imputations. The chapter discusses the main elements of defamatory imputation: reference, publication, and serious harm. It suggests, taking into account the defences examined in the next chapter, that liability for defamation reflects efforts to strike a balance between the interests of free speech and the preservation of one’s reputation. This chapter incorporates the provisions of the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses recent court cases exploring its provisions.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

8. Passing off  

This chapter explores the tort of passing off which protects the goodwill of a trader from misrepresentation. In the United Kingdom, there is no obligation to register a trade mark. Protection has always been available at common law for marks in use, by means of the action for passing off. There are three elements of passing off. First a trader must establish that the trader has a goodwill or reputation attached to the goods or services which the trader supplies. Second, the trader must demonstrate that the defendant has made a misrepresentation leading or likely to lead the public to believe that the goods or services offered by the defendant are the goods or services of the claimant. Lastly, the trader must demonstrate that the trader has suffered or is likely to suffer damage by reason of the erroneous belief caused by the defendant's misrepresentation. These three elements are interdependent.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

9. Remedies Part I: Compensatory Damages Following a Breach  

This chapter explores compensatory damages following a breach of contract. Such damages are aimed at compensating the innocent party for any losses it has suffered that were caused by the breach. However, it cannot expect to receive whatever amount of money it demands and it will usually be faced with a dispute about which losses are claimable. For example, lost profits should be claimable, but what about compensation to cover the costs of correcting a breach? Beyond financial losses, is it possible to claim for injured feelings, harm to reputation, or even loss of enjoyment or disappointment? The chapter examines the detailed rules about the types of loss that are claimable. It then looks at how the courts have developed rules for recognizing a wider range of losses. The chapter also addresses the related issue of parties agreeing in advance the amount of damages to be paid following a breach.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

34. Damage  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines one element that a claimant must prove to sustain a passing off action: the requirement that they have suffered, or are likely to suffer, damage as a result of the defendant’s misrepresentation. It first considers four types of damage that have been recognized by the courts in connection with misrepresentation: loss of existing trade and profits; loss of potential trade and profits; damage to reputation; and dilution. It then discusses the notion of extended passing off and its three elements: goodwill, misrepresentation, and damage. It also looks at the principles of unfair competition.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

VII. Character in general  

This chapter examines the evidence of the character of parties, witnesses, and third parties. Evidence of character has never been a model of coherence or clarity either at common law or under statute. It is complex, both in the connotation and means of proof of the concept of character, and in the variety of contexts in which it arises. The concept embraces both disposition, commonly described as propensity, to act in a relevant way, and sometimes the means of proof of such relevant disposition, either through reputation, the expressed belief of others of the subject's disposition, or of acts of the subject from which such disposition may be inferred. It may be relevant in any form of proceedings, and at any stage of a trial.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Directions

14. Elements of defamation  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Defamation differs from other aspects of tort law because it is concerned with protecting against harm caused by words. The law of defamation is intended to provide compensation for people whose reputations have been damaged by untrue statements and it may allow one to obtain an interim injunction to stop a potentially defamatory statement from being published. This chapter discusses the human rights dimension in defamation and the procedural and substantive changes to defamation law introduced by the Defamation Act 2013. It also explores how to strike a balance between the competing rights of freedom of expression and protection of reputation.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

15. Trade marks 3: relative ground for refusal and invalidation, infringement, and defences  

This chapter discusses the relative grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the circumstances in which a trade mark can be infringed, and defences to an action of infringement, both at national level for UK trade mark registrations and at EU level for the EU trade mark. As relative grounds and infringement overlap, these are considered together. After introducing the relative objections and grounds of infringement generally, the chapter considers what constitutes infringing ‘use’ of a sign. The chapter then runs through the three grounds of infringement/relative objections, looking first at double identity, then likelihood of confusion, then infringement of marks with a reputation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the principal defences.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

15. Trade marks 3: relative ground for refusal and invalidation, infringement, and defences  

This chapter discusses the relative grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the circumstances in which a trade mark can be infringed, and defences to an action of infringement and their limits. As relative grounds and infringement overlap, these are considered together. Important additional legal issues on infringement—such as what constitutes infringing ‘use’ of a trade mark—are also considered. Key questions are the power conferred by a trade mark over the activities of others and the extent to which activities of others can prevent the registration of a trade mark. Again, the chapter reflects evolving legislation at an EU level (particularly the EU’s 2015 trade mark reform package), together with a rich body of case law.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

10. Moral Rights  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on moral rights conferred by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 on the authors of certain works to protect their non-pecuniary or non-economic interests. It begins by describing the nature of and rationales for grant of moral rights as well as a number of criticisms made about such rights. This is followed by a detailed consideration of the moral right of attribution or right of paternity, the right to object to false attribution, and the right of integrity. This discussion identifies when such rights arise (including the requirement of assertion of the attribution right), when the moral rights are infringed, and exceptions to such rights. The chapter also considers how far such rights can be waived.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

14. Defamation  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter deals with the actions in defamation that protect reputation, paying particular attention to the relationship between the protected interest in reputation and the competing interest in freedom of expression. It first considers relevant provisions in the Defamation Act 2013, including the ‘serious harm’ criterion, before turning to the terms of Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights with regard to freedom of expression, with emphasis on the so-called chilling effect. It also discusses libel and slander as well as malicious falsehood, elements of a claim in defamation, defences available to the accused, and the jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to hear defamation claims. The chapter concludes by looking at parties who cannot sue in defamation.