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Chapter

Cover Environmental Law

19. The conservation of nature  

Stuart Bell, Donald McGillivray, Ole W. Pedersen, Emma Lees, and Elen Stokes

This chapter looks at the laws that aim specifically to protect plants, animals, the natural habitats—and, increasingly, the ecosystems—of which they are a part. This is an important part of environmental law, not least because of the appalling rate of decline in, and loss of, the natural environment, but also due to the obvious public interest in conserving biodiversity. Using the law to conserve nature, however, involves finding solutions to some complex policy issues. Finding space for species and habitats to be conserved often clashes with other legitimate social interests, such as economic development and respect for private property. These tensions—which mean that nature conservation law can be a controversial policy area—are a central theme of the chapter.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

3. Theoretical Accounts of European Intellectual Property  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter offers a full and critical account of the arguments for and against the existence of IP systems in general, and of European IP systems in particular. It begins by considering two general theories in support of the recognition of IP rights as natural rights: the first casting IP as supporting the personal development and autonomy of individual creators (the argument from personhood), and the second casting IP as securing for creators such rights as they deserve by virtue of their acts of intellectual creation (the argument from desert). From natural law accounts of the existence of IP the chapter goes on to examine three other theories grounded in considerations of justice, utility, and pluralism respectively. According to the first, IP is defensible as a means of preventing people either from being enriched unjustly or from harming others by unfairly ‘reaping where they have not sown’. According to the second, IP rights are privileges conferred by the state on specific individuals in the pursuit of certain instrumentalist ends, such as encouraging socially desirable behaviour on the part of their beneficiaries or discouraging socially undesirable behaviour on the part of those whose freedoms they restrict. And according to the third, IP is a regulatory mechanism by which different understandings and traditions of protecting creative and informational subject matter are reconciled in support of legal and social pluralism. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of the theoretical accounts for the duration of copyright and related rights protection and the patentability of biotechnology.

Book

Cover Understanding Jurisprudence
With a clear, engaging, and informal style, Understanding Jurisprudence is the perfect guide for students new to legal theory looking for a handy and stimulating starting point to this sometimes daunting subject. Key theories and theorists are introduced in a compact and practicable format, offering an accessible account of the central ideas without oversimplification. Further reading suggestions are included throughout, helping students to structure their research and navigate the jurisprudence’s extensive literature. Critical questions are also included in each chapter, to encourage students to think analytically about the law and legal theory, and the numerous debates that it generates. The author is an experienced teacher of jurisprudence and excels at providing a concise, student-friendly introduction to the subject, without avoiding the subtleties of this absorbing discipline. New to this, the book’s sixth edition, are: the most recent scholarship in several areas, including expanded discussions of theories of justice, globalization, and environmental protection, as well as a new section on judicial review and democracy. There are also updated suggested further reading lists and questions at the end of each chapter.

Chapter

Cover Understanding Jurisprudence

3. Classical legal positivism  

This chapter examines the important theory of legal positivism that has long dominated jurisprudence. It explains the core ideas of the theory, and then considers the leading proponents of classical legal positivism, especially the leading nineteenth century philosophers, Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. Bentham is best known as a utilitarian and law reformer, but he insisted on the separation between the ‘is’ and ‘ought’ of law, or what he preferred to call ‘expositorial’ and ‘censorial’ jurisprudence, respectively. Austin was equally emphatic in maintaining this distinction, but his analysis is generally regarded as much narrower in scope and objective than Bentham’s.

Chapter

Cover McCoubrey & White's Textbook on Jurisprudence

2. Natural Law  

J. E. Penner and E. Melissaris

This chapter explores classical natural law theory. The discussions cover the central concerns of naturalist theories; classical Greco-Roman natural law; the impact of Christian theologian philosophers, in particular Augustine and Aquinas; the natural law revival; Fuller’s procedural natural law; and John Finnis and the theory of natural rights.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

4. Due process  

This chapter explains the overlapping ideas of natural justice, procedural fairness, and due process, and discusses the importance of comity between judges and administrative agencies. The elements of process are outlined: notice and disclosure, oral hearings, waiver, reconsideration, and appeals. Proportionality is presented as a general principle of the procedural duties of public authorities, and the chapter explains the three process values: procedural requirements can improve decisions, treat people with respect, and subject the administration to the rule of law. The chapter explains the irony of process: the law must sometimes require procedures that impose disproportionate burdens on administrative authorities, in order to protect due process. The chapter concludes with an explanation of discretion in process and of the potential dangers involved in administrative processes.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

12. Natural Justice and Legal Justice  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter first discusses how the courts have devised a code of fair administrative procedure based on doctrines which are an essential part of any system of administrative justice. It then explains the concept of administrative justice and natural justice; natural justice in the common law; the European Convention and natural justice in administrative proceedings; and the curative effect of access to a court of ‘full jurisdiction’.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

12. Natural Justice and Legal Justice  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter first discusses how the courts have devised a code of fair administrative procedure based on doctrines which are an essential part of any system of administrative justice. It then explains the concept of administrative justice and natural justice; natural justice in the common law; the European Convention and natural justice in administrative proceedings; and the curative effect of access to a court of ‘full jurisdiction’.

Chapter

Cover Understanding Jurisprudence

2. Natural law and morality  

This chapter discusses the relationship between the ancient classical theory of natural law and its application to contemporary moral questions. It considers the role of natural law in political philosophy, the decline of the theory of natural law, and its revival in the twentieth century. The principal focus is on John Finnis’s natural law theory based largely on the works of St Thomas Aquinas. The chapter posits a distinction between ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ natural law, examines the notion of moral realism, and examines the tension between law and morality; and the subject of the moral dilemmas facing judges in unjust societies.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

9. Becoming a Legal Parent and the Consequences of Legal Parenthood  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines how the status of ‘legal parenthood’ is acquired under English law. It considers different concepts of parenthood and possible approaches to determining legal parenthood; the current legal framework for identifying a child’s legal parents where a child is conceived through natural procreation; and the problems and challenges raised by the use of assisted reproduction techniques and surrogacy.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

9. Becoming a Legal Parent and the Consequences of Legal Parenthood  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines how the status of ‘legal parenthood’ is acquired under English law. It considers different concepts of parenthood and possible approaches to determining legal parenthood; the current legal framework for identifying a child’s legal parents where a child is conceived through natural procreation; and the legal and social challenges raised by the use of assisted reproduction techniques and surrogacy.

Chapter

Cover The Substantive Law of the EU

8. Freedom for Individuals to Provide and Receive Services  

Articles 56–7 TFEU lay down the principle of freedom to provide services on a temporary basis by a person established in one Member State to a recipient established in another. This chapter first considers who is entitled to benefit from the services provisions and the rights they enjoy in respect of: (1) initial access to the market; (2) the exercise of the freedom; and (3) the enjoyment of social advantages.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

12. Legal reasoning and ethics  

This chapter introduces legal reasoning. It first outlines the skills to analyse how judges decide cases. There are various points of view that judges can (and do) take in deciding the outcomes of cases, so the chapter introduces some of the theory behind judicial reasoning before moving on to show how judges reason in practice, how one case can give rise to multiple judgments, and the importance of legal ethics.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

12. Freedom of establishment and freedom to provide and receive services  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter first discusses the freedom of establishment, distinguishing between the freedom of establishment for natural persons and the freedom of establishment for legal persons; and then considers the freedom to provide and receive services, explaining the possible derogations to both freedoms. Finally, there is consideration of the impact of Brexit on the freedom of establishment and the freedom to provide and receive services.

Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

12. Legal reasoning and ethics  

This chapter provides an introduction to legal reasoning. It first outlines the skills to analyse how judges decide cases. There are various points of view that judges can (and do) take in deciding the outcomes of cases, so the chapter introduces some of the theory behind judicial reasoning before moving on to show how judges reason in practice, how one case can give rise to multiple judgments, and the importance of legal ethics.

Chapter

Cover International Law

A Short History of International Law  

Stephen C Neff

This chapter presents a brief history of international law. It proceeds chronologically, beginning with an overview of the ancient world, followed by a more detailed discussion of the great era of natural law in the European Middle Ages. The classical period (1600–1815) witnessed the emergence of a dualistic view of international law, with the law of nature and the law of nations co-existing (more or less amicably). In the nineteenth century—the least-known part of international law—doctrinaire positivism was the prevailing viewpoint, though not the exclusive one. For the inter-war years, developments both inside and outside the League of Nations are considered. The chapter concludes with some historically oriented comments on international law during the post-1945 period.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords. This case considered whether the process by which a Chief Constable was sacked amounted to procedural unfairness and breached the rules of natural justice. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40, House of Lords. This case considered whether the process by which a Chief Constable was sacked amounted to procedural unfairness and breached the rules of natural justice. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

11. Conservation of Nature, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity  

Our survival on earth, this chapter argues, depends on the conservation of the world’s natural resources. These resources comprise of soil, water, the atmosphere, plants, trees, and other life forms. The chapter looks at the earth’s current ‘ecological footprint’ and the future of that ecological footprint as it stands now. There is now widespread scientific consensus that biodiversity is being lost, and that pressures on biodiversity are increasing. The chapter asks what we can do about this, in terms of international law. The chapter identifies how international law seeks to ensure the protection and conservation and sustainable use of nature, its ecosystems and biodiversity, and the effectiveness of measures developed to conserve land?based living resources, forests, and deserts.

Chapter

Cover The Concept of Law

IX. Laws and Morals  

H. L. A. Hart

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter examines the relations between law and morals. It analyses what lies between Natural Law and Legal Positivism. It considers, in the form of five truisms, the salient characteristics of human nature upon which the minimum content of Natural Law rests. These truisms are: human vulnerability, approximate equality, limited altruism, limited resources, and limited understanding and strength of will. The chapter concludes by examining six forms of the claim that there is some further way in which law must conform to morals beyond that which has been exhibited as the minimum content of Natural Law.