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Chapter

Cover Foster on EU Law

5. The Supremacy of EU Law  

This chapter examines the supremacy of EU law from both the point of view of the Union, as understood by the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the point of view of member states. A consensus seems to be emerging from the national and constitutional courts that EU law supremacy is accepted only in so far as it does not infringe the individual rights protection of the national constitutions, in which case the constitutional courts will exercise their reserved rights over national constitutions to uphold them over inconsistent EU law or to review EU law in light of their own constitutions.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

5. Member State liability in damages  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a very wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the circumstances in which Member State liability will arise. The discussions cover in depth the establishment of the principle of State liability; the Francovich test governing the imposition of State liability; the development of the principle of State liability; the Factortame test governing the imposition of State liability; the relationship between State liability and direct effect/indirect effect; and the relationship between State liability and EU liability under Article 340 TFEU.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

8. Members’ remedies  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the three principal remedies provided by law to members of a company: the derivative claim under Pt 11 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006), the unfair prejudice remedy under Pt 30 of the CA 2006, and the petition for winding up the company under s 122 of the Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986).

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

8. Members’ remedies  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the three principal remedies provided by law to members of a company: the derivative claim under Pt 11 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006); the unfair prejudice remedy under Pt 30 of the CA 2006; and the petition for winding up the company under s 122 of the Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986).

Chapter

Cover Company Law

16. Membership and the incidents of membership  

This chapter discusses the law on membership and the incidents of membership. The discussion covers classes of shares, class rights, share transfer and transmission, and the register of members. The chapter considers how people become members and the importance of entry on the register of members. It also considers the restrictions on access to the register and the power of the court to rectify the register when necessary to do so. It is possible to protect shareholders by providing for classes of shares and the chapter considers the protection afforded by class rights and how class rights, once created, can be varied subsequently. Share transfer and transmission is also considered.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

4. Competence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

4. The Supremacy of EU Law and its Reception in the Member States  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the supremacy of EU law and its reception in Member States. Both the legal arguments for supremacy and the political logic are often considered in establishing the reasoning for EU law supremacy. The first question concentrates on the reasons for EU law supremacy from the point of view of the Union and in the view of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU (or also abbreviated CoJ)). A general question about the exit process of a state by a Member State in the light of Brexit is included.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

4. Competence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

17. Tribunals  

Tribunals have operated for over 200 years. They are specialised courts dealing in specific areas of legal dispute such as employment, housing, immigration, mental health, social benefits, and tax. This chapter explains the development of tribunals. It examines the major reforms that have taken place in the twenty-first century, resulting in most tribunals being re-organised into ‘chambers’ within the First-Tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal. The chapter explains the composition of tribunals and the rules on appointment of tribunal members. It explains the ways in which tribunal decisions may be challenged, either by an appeal to another tribunal or to the courts, or through judicial review. The chapter examines the advantages of tribunals over courts and considers whether tribunals are becoming too much like the mainstream courts.

Book

Cover Company Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Company Law Concentrate helps readers to consolidate knowledge in this area of law. This seventh edition has been fully updated and includes coverage of the Economic Crime and Corporate Transparency Bill/Act 2023, the Law Commission’s review of corporate criminal liability, and the Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2023. Case law updates include BTI 2014 LLV v Sequana SA [2022], Okpabi v Royal Dutch Shell plc [2021], Sevilleja v Marex Financial Ltd [2020], and WM Morrison Supermarkets plc v Various Claimants [2020]. Chapters examine business structures, incorporation, the constitution of the company, directors, members, corporate governance, capital and capital maintenance issues, members’ remedies, and corporate rescue and liquidation.

Book

Cover Company Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Company Law Concentrate helps readers to consolidate knowledge in this area of law. This sixth edition has been fully updated and includes coverage of the 2018 UK Corporate Governance Code, the Wates Corporate Governance Principles, the UK Stewardship Code 2020, the Companies (Miscellaneous Reporting) Regulations 2018, and the reforms proposed following the consultation on insolvency and corporate governance. Case law updates include BAT Industries plc v Sequana SA [2019], Burnden Holdings (UK) Ltd v Fielding [2019], Popely v Popely [2019], and Vedanta Resources plc v Lungowe [2019]. Chapters examine business structures, incorporation, the constitution of the company, directors, members, corporate governance, capital and capital maintenance issues, members’ remedies, and corporate rescue and liquidation.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter traces the development of the European Union. Since its inception in 1952, the EU has matured and developed from a Community of like-minded states into a Union of a greater diversity of states, with a comprehensive legal system which is increasingly penetrating the national legal systems of Member States. From the six original members, the EU now counts 27 Member States. Eleven of the thirteen newer Member States are in Central and Eastern Europe, and have discarded their old Communist regimes, turning into democracies with the qualifications to join the Union. The latest developments and changes, including Brexit and the effects of Covid-19, are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Concentrate

4. Direct actions in the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Articles 258–260, 263, 265, 277, and 340 TFEU

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses articles in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) that provide for actions that are brought directly before the Court. Under Articles 258 and 259 TFEU, respectively, the European Commission and Member States may bring enforcement proceedings against a Member State in breach of Treaty obligations. Article 260 TFEU, requires compliance with the Court’s judgment. Article 263 TFEU concerns judicial review of EU acts. The outcome of a successful action is annulment. Article 265 TFEU provides for actions against the EU institutions for failure to act.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

12. Membership  

This chapter explains what membership of an LLP entails. It explains how a person becomes a member of an LLP, and the different types of membership that are recognised in law. It considers case law on the question as to whether a person can be both a member and an employee, and both a member and a worker. Finally, it explains how a person might be disqualified from being a member of an LLP and the consequences of such a person acting as a member whilst disqualified.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

13. Rights and Duties of Membership  

This chapter addresses the rights and obligations of membership. It explains what a member's share in the LLP entails, and considers how the share can be assigned or treated as property. It considers the duties that members owe to the LLP and to each other, including both fiduciary duties and those that arise under a common law duty of care. It considers what duties a member may have to outsiders, and also the protections that a member may have in the event of unfair treatment by the LLP.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law

4. Articles of association  

This chapter deals with articles of association, the principal element of a company’s constitution, under the Companies Act 2006. It describes the content of the articles, model articles of association which can be adopted by limited companies (either in whole or in part) on registration, and the function of articles as a contract between the company and its members and between the members themselves. It also considers provisions of articles that may be incorporated in other contracts and the right of members of a company to amend its articles. The chapter discusses a number of particularly significant court cases, including Allen v Gold Reefs of West Africa Ltd [1900] 1 Ch 656 and Quin and Axtens Ltd v Salmon [1909] AC 442.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

19. Free Movement of Goods: Duties, Charges, and Taxes  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter deals with Member State action that creates barriers to trade. The most obvious form of protectionism occurs through customs duties or charges that have an equivalent effect, with the object of rendering foreign goods more expensive than their domestic counterparts. This is addressed by Articles 28-30 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). A state may also attempt to benefit domestic goods by taxes that discriminate against imports, which is covered by Articles 110-113 TFEU. These issues are considered within the chapter. The UK version contains a further section analysing the way in which issues of customs duties and taxation are likely to be resolved in future trade relations between the EU and the UK.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

20. Free Movement of Goods: Quantitative Restrictions  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter considers Articles 34-37 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Article 34 is the central provision and states that: ‘quantitative restrictions on imports and all measures having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between Member States’. Article 35 contains similar provisions relating to exports, while Article 36 provides an exception for certain cases in which a state is allowed to place restrictions on the movement of goods. The European Court of Justice’s interpretation of Articles 34-37 has been important in achieving single market integration. It has given a broad interpretation to the phrase ‘measures having equivalent effect’ to a quantitative restriction (MEQR), and has construed the idea of discrimination broadly to capture both direct and indirect discrimination. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning free movement of goods between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.