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Chapter

Cover European Union Law

4. Constitutionalism and the European Union  

Robert Schütze

This chapter addresses the question of whether the EU has a constitution. This question has plagued EU law ever since its birth. The chapter explores the formal constitutionalist credentials of the Union legal order and shows that the Union has claimed that the EU Treaties constitute the highest law in Europe. It then examines the constitutional nature of the Union from a ‘democratic’ perspective. Finally, it evaluates the Union legal order through the lens of liberal constitutionalism. This ‘classic’ constitutionalism assesses the legal nature of a document by insisting on a separation of powers and the existence of fundamental rights.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

4. Constitutionalism and the European Union  

Robert Schütze

This chapter addresses the question of whether the EU has a constitution. It explores the formal constitutionalist credentials of the Union legal order and shows that the Union has claimed that the EU Treaties constitute the highest law in Europe. It then examines the constitutional nature of the Union from a ‘democratic’ perspective. Finally, it evaluates the Union legal order through the lens of liberal constitutionalism. This ‘classic’ constitutionalism assesses the legal nature of a document by insisting on a separation of powers and the existence of fundamental rights.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

6. The relationship between EU and national law  

This chapter focuses on the relationship between EU law and national law. It first explores the jurisprudence on what is known as the doctrine of supremacy of EU law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). When a national court observes that a national law clashes with an EU law, they must set aside that national law. The EU legal order would not work without a doctrine like supremacy: not only would domestic courts not be compelled to apply EU law instead of conflicting national law, but it is likely that different domestic courts would take different decisions as to whether to apply EU law over national law in a given scenario. The chapter then considers how supremacy has been received in Germany and the UK, looking at how the German and UK legal orders interact with EU law. It then addresses whether ‘parliamentary sovereignty’ is compatible with EU membership, and examines the impact of Brexit on the supremacy of EU law.

Chapter

Cover International Law

1. Foundations and structure of international law  

This chapter introduces the subject of public international law and provides an overview of its most important elements. It begins with a brief historical overview of international law. It then presents the international legal system consisting of different structures of legal rules and principles; discusses the basis of international legal obligation; offers a brief overview of the relationship between international law and national law; and deals with the issue of enforcement. The chapter concludes with some remarks about the alleged inadequacies of international law and the tension between notions of justice and order that is so prevalent within the international legal system.

Chapter

Cover European Constitutional Law

1. Constitutional History  

From Paris to Lisbon

This introductory chapter assesses whether there is a European constitution. When examined in the light of the broader historical tradition, the European Union has a constitution. And this view firmly corresponds to the self-understanding of the European legal order. The ‘real’ problem of the European Union is not whether there is a European constitution, but rather that there is ‘too much constitutional law’; the European Treaties alone contain 413 articles. Length is unfortunately not the only problem of the European constitution, for unlike more mature legal orders, the European constitutional order still struggles with its ‘vocabulary’. The semantic confusions are partly the result of the constant legal revolutions within the European Union. This book then aims to reflect the judicial and legislative practice of the Union as at October 31, 2020. It provides a guide through the most important theories and realities of the European Union law.

Chapter

Cover International Law

6. International organizations  

This chapter looks at international organizations, their differences to States, and their position within the international legal order. Today, international organizations exist in virtually all fields of transnational and global collective concern. In the broadest sense, they facilitate international cooperation in all areas from the harmonization of tariffs to the management of delicate ecosystems, and range in their scope from small bilateral commissions regulating transboundary resources to regional security and economic organizations, all the way to the universalist aspirations of the UN. The chapter then considers the question of establishing the legal personality of international organizations under international law, which must be distinguished from the question of whether an international organization may also hold legal personality under the domestic law of a State.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

3. The Sources, Forms, and Individual Remedies of EU Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter includes questions on a wide variety of often overlapping points concerned with the sources of European Union (EU) law. The EU sources of law are the Treaties, Protocols, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which are regarded as primary sources. There is then the secondary legislation to consider which can be enacted by the institutions of the Union by virtue of the powers given by the Member States and contained in the Treaties. Additional sources of law in the EU legal order are agreements with third countries, fundamental rights, general principles, and the case law of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) establishing, amongst other case law developments, the doctrine of direct effects, supremacy of EU law, and state liability.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

5. The Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter deals with questions on the range of actions or types of procedure provided for under the TFEU (ex-European Community (EC) Treaty). These are the actions under Arts 258–60, 263, 265, 267, 268, 277, and 340 TFEU. The questions range from a straightforward consideration on the procedure of each action to the difficulties for applicants in these actions: the setting of difficult problem questions on the procedural aspects to questions requiring a consideration of more than one action. The chapter concludes with a general question on the overall range and effectiveness of remedies for individuals in the EU legal order. A mixture of essay and problem-type questions is provided.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

4. Principle of Supremacy of EU Law  

This chapter examines the Court of Justice’s (CJ) case law on the supremacy of European Union (EU) law over national laws of Member States, analyses the question of priorities between directly effective EU law and domestic law, and also looks at this problem from the perspective of the national courts, including issues of human rights protection. It argues that the CJ’s introduction of the notion of supremacy, as part of EU law constituting a ‘new legal order’, was instrumental in providing a view of the Union as a body which went beyond what was normal for an international law organisation. The chapter also describes how Member States developed their own constitutional rules as a response to EU law.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

47. Qualified One-Way Costs Shifting  

Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS) provides costs protection to claimants in personal injuries claims. If the claimant wins, the defendant should be ordered to pay the claimant’s costs in the usual way. However, if the claimant loses, under QOCS, while the claimant remains liable to pay its own lawyers’ costs, and may be ordered to pay the successful defendant’s costs, the claimant will be protected against actually having to pay those costs to the defendant. This chapter discusses cases where QOCS applies; the effects of QOCS; and loss of QOCS protection.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

NV Algemene Transport- en Expeditie Onderneming Van Gend en Loos (Case 26/62), EU:C:1963:1, [1963] ECR 1, 5 February 1963  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in NV Algemene Transport- en Expeditie Onderneming Van Gend en Loos (Case 26/62), EU:C:1963:1 [1963] ECR 1, 5 February 1963. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

NV Algemene Transport- en Expeditie Onderneming Van Gend en Loos (Case 26/62), EU:C:1963:1, [1963] ECR 1, 5 February 1963  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in NV Algemene Transport- en Expeditie Onderneming Van Gend en Loos (Case 26/62), EU:C:1963:1 [1963] ECR 1, 5 February 1963. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

7. The Right to an Effective Remedy  

This chapter examines the issue of remedy under the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), addresses the question concerning the existence of an arguable complaint and the effectiveness of the remedy in the national legal order, and considers proceedings in cases involving violations by persons in an official capacity. It also discusses the approach of the Strasbourg Court in the determination of remedies and the increasing use of Article 13 to tackle repetitive cases by requesting respondent States to create remedies so that the complaints can be dealt with at national level.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

4. Principle of supremacy of EU law  

This chapter examines the Court of Justice’s (CJ) case law on the supremacy of European Union (EU) law over national laws of Member States, analyses the question of priorities between directly effective EU law and domestic law, and also looks at this problem from the perspective of the national courts, including issues of human rights protection. It argues that the CJ’s introduction of the notion of supremacy, as part of EU law constituting a ‘new legal order’, was instrumental in providing a view of the Union as a body which went beyond what was normal for an international law organization. The chapter also describes how Member States developed their own constitutional rules as a response to EU law.

Chapter

Cover International Law

4. International law and municipal law  

This chapter assesses the relationship between international law and municipal law. Though international law deals primarily with inter-State relations, and municipal law addresses relationships between individuals or between individuals and the State, there are many overlapping issues on which both international and national regulation are necessary, such as the environment, trade, and human rights. Though the international legal order asserts its primacy over municipal legislation, it leaves to domestic constitutions the question of how international legal rules should be applied or enforced in municipal orders. Two conflicting doctrines define the relationship between international and municipal legal orders: dualism and monism. Dualism is usually understood as emphasizing the autonomy and distinct nature of municipal legal orders, in which the State is sovereign and supreme. Meanwhile, theories of monism conceive the relationship between international and municipal legal orders as more coherent and in fact unified, their validity deriving from one common source.

Chapter

Cover Foster on EU Law

4. EU Law: Sources, Forms, and Law-Making  

This chapter takes an overall view of the EU legal order and examines its legal system, including the elements which are either different from or similar to member states’ legal systems. It begins by taking an overall view of the EU legal order, the different forms of EU law, and the various sources of law contributing to this legal order, in particular now the rich source of human and fundamental rights in the EU legal order. It considers the non-strictly legally binding rules known as ‘soft law’. It also looks at the ways or processes by which the binding laws are made and reviews alternative decision-making and law-making developments.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Flaminio Costa v ENEL (Case 6/64), EU:C:1964:66, [1964] ECR 585, 15 July 1964  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Flaminio Costa v ENEL (Case 6/64), EU:C:1964:66, [1964] ECR 585, 15 July 1964. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Flaminio Costa v ENEL (Case 6/64), EU:C:1964:66, [1964] ECR 585, 15 July 1964  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Flaminio Costa v ENEL (Case 6/64), EU:C:1964:66, [1964] ECR 585, 15 July 1964. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

2. The Foundations of European Union Intellectual Property Law  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter discusses the role of the EU in the IP field before and since the introduction of the Lisbon Treaty. To that end it introduces the EU legal order itself, including its founding Treaties, institutions, and authority to act (competence), with a focus on IP. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2.2 traces the establishment of the European Economic Community and its development to the European Union. Section 2.3 describes the seven EU institutions: the European Council, European Commission, European Parliament, Council, Court of Justice of the EU, European Central Bank, and Court of Auditors. Section 2.4 explains the legal authority of the EU, in relation particularly to IP. Section 2.5 covers EU measures and their legal effects. And Section 2.6 discusses the actions of the Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

4. Governmental Structure  

Union Institutions II

This chapter focuses on the internal composition, internal powers, and internal procedures of the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), the European Central Bank (ECB), and the Court of Auditors. The Commission constituted the centre of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), where it was ‘to ensure that the objectives set out in [that] Treaty [were] attained’. In guiding the European Union, it acts (together with the European Council) like the Union's ‘government’. The CJEU constitutes the judicial branch of the European Union. However, it is not the only one to interpret and apply European law. From the very beginning, the European legal order intended to recruit national courts in the interpretation and application of European law. Meanwhile, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) defines the ‘primary objective’ of the European Central Bank as the maintenance of price stability. Finally, the Court of Auditors is staffed by accountants, whose primary task is to ‘carry out the Union's audit’.