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Chapter

Cover Evidence

13. Identification evidence  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. Since publication of the Devlin Report both common law and statute have striven to reduce the risk of miscarriages of justice through mistaken identifications. This chapter discusses the following: the inherent unreliability of evidence of identification; the courts’ strong disapproval of dock identifications; the Court of Appeal’s landmark decision in Turnbull; identification procedures and PACE Code D; and assorted methods of identification, including the increasingly important topic of identifications made using social media.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence

7. Supporting evidence: Lies, identification evidence, and suspect witnesses  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. This chapter discusses supporting evidence, which is variously referred to in textbooks as hazardous evidence, supporting evidence or safeguards against unreliability and error. Supporting evidence encompasses types of evidence that might intrinsically be of questionable reliability and, therefore, require supportive evidence. Key areas are disputed identification and lies told by the defendant. It is important to be familiar with the two distinct ways that the reliability of identification evidence is enhanced: first, the judge should issue the Turnbull guidelines; and, secondly, Code D of the Codes of Practice of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 should be followed in relation to identification procedures.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

6. Identification Evidence  

Chapter 6 first considers the three categories of factors which may contribute to the mistaken identification of the defendant as the perpetrator of the offence: witness factors, event factors, and post-event factors. It then turns to R v Turnbull in 1976, where the Court of Appeal laid down the famous ‘Turnbull guidelines’ on judicial warnings to the jury about visual identification evidence. This is followed by discussions of discretionary exclusion of identification evidence and the use of photographs and video recordings.

Book

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

Adrian Keane and Paul McKeown

The Modern Law of Evidence is a comprehensive analysis of the law of criminal and civil evidence and the theory behind the law. It identifies all the key issues, emphasizes recent developments and insights from the academic literature, and makes suggestions for further reading. The work begins with a definition of evidence and the law of evidence and an outline of its development to date. It then describes and analyses the key concepts, such as the facts open to proof, the forms that evidence can take, relevance, admissibility, weight, and discretion. It then proceeds to cover in a logical sequence all aspects of the subject: the burden and standard of proof, proof of facts without evidence, documentary and real evidence, witnesses, examination-in-chief, cross-examination and re-examination, corroboration and care warnings, visual and voice identification, evidence obtained by illegal or unfair means, hearsay, confessions, adverse inferences from an accused’s silence, evidence of good and bad character, opinion evidence, public policy, privilege, and the admissibility of previous verdicts.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

4. Investigating crime and gathering evidence  

The criminal process is, to a large extent, an investigative one, existing to prepare cases for effective trial. To this end, authorities are given powers enabling them to gather evidence. But these powers can infringe numerous interests, some relating to the workings of the process itself, in addition to external ones, such as liberty, privacy, freedom from humiliation, and bodily integrity. This chapter examines how the gathering of evidence is and should be affected by these concerns and covers powers and practices in relation to the investigation of crime and the gathering of evidence. It discusses stop and search, surveillance, eyewitness identification evidence, voice identification, forensic and biometric samples, and the privilege against self-incrimination.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

7. Examination in chief  

Examination in chief is the process whereby a party, who has called a witness to give evidence on his behalf, elicits from that witness evidence relevant to the issues and favourable to the examiner’s case. This chapter discusses the following: the nature and conduct of examination in chief; memory-refreshing by the witness; previous consistent statements; identification evidence; the Turnbull Guidelines on identification; unfavourable and hostile witnesses; and presentation of evidence by non-traditional means. The courts make increasing use of ‘special measures’ to assist witnesses in giving evidence, for example, through the use of intermediaries, live links and Achieving Best Evidence interviews.

Book

Cover Evidence

Andrew L-T Choo

Andrew Choo’s Evidence provides an account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales. It also explores the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. The text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a mix of critical and thought-provoking analysis. Where appropriate the text draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. This (sixth) edition takes account of revisions to the Criminal Procedure Rules, the Criminal Practice Directions, and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act Codes of Practice. It also examines in detail cases on various topics decided since the last edition was completed, or the significance of which has become clear since then, including: • Addlesee v Dentons Europe llp (CA, 2019) (legal professional privilege) • Birmingham City Council v Jones (CA, 2018) (standard of proof) • R v B (E) (CA, 2017) (good character evidence) • R v Brown (Nico) (CA, 2019) (hearsay evidence) • R v C (CA, 2019) (hearsay evidence) • R v Chauhan (CA, 2019) (submissions of ‘no case to answer’) • R v Gabbai (Edward) (CA, 2019) (bad character evidence) • R v Gillings (Keith) (CA, 2019) (bad character evidence) • R v Hampson (Philip) (CA, 2018) (special measures directions) • R v K (M) (CA, 2018) (burden of proof) • R v Kiziltan (CA, 2017) (hearsay evidence) • R v L (T) (CA, 2018) (entrapment) • R v Reynolds (CA, 2019) (summing-up) • R v S (CA, 2016) (hearsay evidence) • R v SJ (CA, 2019) (expert evidence) • R v Smith (Alec) (CA, 2020) (hearsay evidence) • R v Stevens (Jack) (CA, 2020) (presumptions) • R v Townsend (CA, 2020) (expert evidence) • R v Twigg (CA, 2019) (improperly obtained evidence) • R (Jet2.com Ltd) v CAA (CA, 2020) (legal professional privilege) • R (Maughan) v Oxfordshire Senior Coroner (SC, 2020) (standard of proof) • Serious Fraud Office v Eurasian Natural Resources Corpn Ltd (CA, 2018) (legal professional privilege) • Shagang Shipping Co Ltd v HNA Group Co Ltd (SC, 2020) (foundational concepts; improperly obtained evidence) • Stubbs v The Queen (PC, 2020) (identification evidence) • Volaw Trust and Corporate Services Ltd v Office of the Comptroller of Taxes (PC, 2019) (privilege against self-incrimination) • Volcafe Ltd v Cia Sud Americana de Vapores SA (SC, 2018) (burden of proof)

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

8. Identification, care warnings, and questioning at trial  

This chapter examines a number of procedural matters in criminal trials. It first explains suspect evidence and the erosion of the rules on corroboration under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (CJPOA)1994. It then concentrates in some detail on identification evidence concerned with the Turnbull directions and the provisions of Code D Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984. The extent to which the defendant’s lies may constitute evidence of guilt is explained, along with a review of Lucas directions. It continues with a review of the various procedural aspects of examination and cross-examination. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the rules on cross-examination of complainants in sexual cases on their previous sexual history along with the case law under s41 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA)1999.