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Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

9. Human rights in the European Union  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter begins with a brief history of human rights protection in Europe, including the separate role of the Council of Europe and the ECHR, as well as that of the EU and EU law. It then discusses the development of human rights protection by the EU; the need for human rights protection against the EU and its Member States; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU; the enforcement of human rights in EU law; and the possibility of EU accession to the ECHR.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter presents an overview of contract law. It discusses the definition of a contract; the problems arising in the life of a contract that must be addressed by contract law; the common law, statutory, and international sources of contract law; the nature of legal reasoning; the pluralistic values reflected in contract law that introduce tensions; the main theories on why contracts should be enforced; the reach of contract law and where contract law does not apply; contract law’s relationship to other branches of private law tort, property, and unjust enrichment; and the external influences on English contract law.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

1. Introduction  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the definition of administrative law. It then turns to the characteristics of the law, covering the legal systems of Britain and Continental Europe, EU law, European human rights, the development of administrative law in England, and the failure of administrative law to keep pace with the expanding powers of the state in the twentieth century.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

1. Introduction  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the definition of administrative law. It then turns to the characteristics of the law, covering the legal systems of Britain and Continental Europe, EU law, European human rights, the development of administrative law in England and the failure of administrative law to keep pace with the expanding powers of the state in the twentieth century.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

3. Human rights law  

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

19. Human Rights and The UK Constitution  

This chapter examines human rights protection in the UK. It examines the reasons why the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was enacted, the effects of the HRA, the principal mechanisms through which the HRA affords protection to human rights in UK law; the scope of the HRA; and the debate concerning the potential repeal, reform, or replacement of the HRA. The chapter also introduces the notion of human rights, including the practical and philosophical cases for their legal protection, and the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the HRA gives effect in UK law.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Land Law

3. Adverse Possession  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents issues related to adverse possession in both registered and unregistered land and also considers the implications for squatters’ rights of the European Convention on Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

7. Personal rights and freedoms  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter considers the rights and freedoms provided by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

4. Europe and the English legal system  

This chapter examines the two principal European sources of law (namely EU Law and the European Convention on Human Rights) and their effect upon the UK’s legal system. It notes the institutions that form the EU and the differing forms of EU law. The effects of EU membership upon parliamentary sovereignty are discussed, noting that EU law has taken precedence over domestic law since 1973, so an Act of Parliament may be suspended by the courts if it fails to comply with EU law. The chapter then discusses the European Convention on Human Rights and the rights protected under it. Finally, the chapter discusses the domestic enforcement of the Convention by discussing in detail the provisions of the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

9. Fundamental rights in the European Union  

Eleanor Spaventa

This chapter examines fundamental rights in the EU. It begins by analysing the historical background and the development of the case law on fundamental rights. It then examines the main Treaty provisions relating to fundamental rights protection, before turning to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. Finally, it looks at the relationship between the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), including the extent to which the European Court of Human Rights agrees to scrutinize EU acts. It also considers the plan for the EU to accede to the ECHR. It also considers what happens when states do not respect the rule of law.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Law

18. The Protection of Human Rights  

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

This chapter surveys the process of emergence of human rights law in the post-1945 era, focusing on the major milestones, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the two 1966 International Covenants, and the establishment of several regional mechanisms in Europe, the Americas, and Africa. It emphasizes the tension between traditional international law and the development of human rights as a ground-breaking doctrine after the Second World War. In essence the human rights doctrines force States to give account of how they treat all individuals, including their nationals; this make States accountable for how they administer justice, run prisons, and so on. Potentially, it can subvert their domestic orders and requires them to adhere to minimum standards agreed at international level. As a further consequence, human rights doctrines have altered the traditional configuration of the international community as driven only by the interests of States.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

10. Substantive rights—general comments  

This chapter discusses the reality of human rights protection within States. It addresses the limitations of various rights and the extent to which States can deviate from responsibility in terms of international human rights law. It covers issues such as State discretion in selecting and applying rights, particularly through derogations, reservations, declarations, and denunciations. This builds on the introduction to treaty law provided in Chapter 1. These are issues which impact on almost all human rights and almost all States in some way. Cases and communications are drawn on to illustrate the practical implications.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

18. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998  

One of the most fundamental aspects of any constitution are the provisions and measures that protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. In the UK, rights protection is markedly different to that in America, in chief because there is no entrenched Bill of Rights. Rights protection is dominated by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), incorporated by the Human Rights Act 1998, which sets out a number of positive rights that are actionable in the UK courts. This chapter discusses the ways in which these rights are protected in the UK Constitution. It discusses the courts’ historic civil liberties approach and common law protection of rights, before then examining the development, incorporation, and application of the ECHR. The chapter also explores the way in which the various sections of the Human Rights Act 1998 work to ensure appropriate enforcement and protection of rights in UK law.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Concentrate

14. Introduction to human rights in UK law  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) and the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998. The ECHR guarantees civil and political rights: these are the right to life; the prohibition of torture, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment; the prohibition of slavery and forced labour; the right to liberty; the right to a fair and unbiased hearing; the prohibition of retrospective legislation; the right to respect for private and family life; freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of expression; freedom of association; and the right to marry and found a family. The ECHR has been expanded by a series of supplementary treaties called protocols. The First and Sixth Protocols give individuals additional rights which were incorporated into British law by the HRA 1998. This chapter also examines the significance of the Independent Review of the Human Rights Act which is due to be carried out in 2021.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

20. Liability of Public Authorities  

Sir William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

This chapter discusses the liability of public authorities. Topics covered include categories of liability; liability under EU law; liability for breach of human rights; liability for the tort of negligence; strict liability; breach of statutory duty; misfeasance in public office; statement of general principles of liability; immunities and time limits for actions in tort; liability in contract; liability to make restitution; and liability to pay compensation where there has been no tort or breach of contract.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

17. Freedoms and liberties in the United Kingdom  

This chapter is concerned with how freedoms and liberties might be protected in the UK. It begins with an attempt to distinguish between human rights and civil liberties, whilst recognizing that this is by no means a straightforward task. It then covers political and social or economic rights, the traditional means of protecting civil liberties in the UK, the European Convention on Human Rights, the incorporation of the Convention into English law, and judicial deference/discretionary areas of judgment. The Human Rights Act 1998 is reviewed from a protection of rights perspective. Finally, the question of a Bill of Rights for the UK is considered, along with reform intentions relating to the 1998 Act.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

17. Property Law and Human Rights  

This chapter reflects on the interaction between property law and human rights law. Property law and human rights can interact in a number of different ways. The major division distinguishes those cases where human rights arguments are made to ‘bolster’ an existing property law-based argument, and those where the human rights argument is made to attempt to limit the scope of a property right. Thus, one can see the rules of property law and human rights working together, or they can be in conflict. The chapter first identifies the sources of human rights in English law, and then considers which rights are particularly important in relation to property law. It also looks at the mechanics by which key human rights interact with property law, and examines the question of horizontal effect in that context. Finally, the chapter addresses how human rights arguments have had influence in particular areas of land law, focusing on adverse possession, leases, actions for possession against trespassers, and mortgages.

Chapter

Cover Thompson's Modern Land Law

3. Law, Equity, and Human Rights  

In addition to the concepts of tenure and estates, another fundamental aspect of England’s Land Law is the impact of equity. The intervention of equity was originally based upon the need to enforce obligations of conscience and to redress defects in the common law, and also gave rise to the trust. But while the trust might be equity’s greatest creation, the intervention of equity also addressed other areas of Land Law where the common law position was considered to be defective or oppressive. A notable example is the law of mortgages. Aside from modifying the common law, equity also recognized other rights that did not result in the beneficial entitlement to the land. This chapter discusses the historical basis of equity in England, the creation of equitable rights, the enforceability of equitable and legal rights, and human rights.