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Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

1. Human rights: the idea and the law  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses the idea of human rights, as well as a range of political and constitutional issues to which they give rise. The general history of the international protection of human rights from which the UK system is derived is also introduced. The chapter furthermore presents examples of human rights abuses specific to the UK that are, to some extent, at the mild end of the full spectrum of human rights abuses found in other parts of Europe or in the rest of the world. The concept of human rights assumes that all reasonable human beings share the feeling that, in whatever they do, they need to accord proper respect to the dignity of all individual human beings. States and governments, in particular, must ensure that individual dignity is respected in their laws and practices.

Chapter

Cover Understanding Jurisprudence

10. Rights  

One of the most important and controversial concepts that preoccupies legal and moral philosophers is that of a ‘right’. To have a right raises the distinction between what a right is, on the one hand, and what rights people actually have or should have, on the other. This is the difference between a moral and a legal right that is a recurring theme in discussions of this subject. This chapter examines the concept of rights, various theories and types of rights (including human and animal rights), and concludes with a brief exercise in ‘applied jurisprudence’ that attempts to show how apparently competing approaches to a crucial democratic right may be resolved.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

3. Human rights law  

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

19. Human Rights and The UK Constitution  

This chapter examines human rights protection in the UK. It examines the reasons why the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was enacted, the effects of the HRA, the principal mechanisms through which the HRA affords protection to human rights in UK law; the scope of the HRA; and the debate concerning the potential repeal, reform, or replacement of the HRA. The chapter also introduces the notion of human rights, including the practical and philosophical cases for their legal protection, and the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the HRA gives effect in UK law.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

2. Justifications  

Samantha Besson

This chapter discusses the importance of justifying human rights, particularly in response to critics. It explains the following: why we need to justify human rights; what it means to justify human rights; what the different justifications for human rights may be; and what some of the implications of the justifications of human rights may be for other key issues in human rights theory.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

23. The fourth, sixth, seventh, and thirteenth protocols  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Protocols 4, 6, 7, and 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Protocols 4 and 7 protect a selection of civil and political rights not covered by the main Convention text and which make up for the substantive deficiencies of the Convention when compared to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Protocols 6 and 13 concern the abolition of the death penalty in peacetime and in war, respectively.

Book

Cover International Human Rights Law
International Human Rights Law provides a concise introduction for students new to the subject. Clearly written and broad in scope, this popular text gives a concise introduction to international human rights, including regional systems of protection and the key substantive rights. The author skilfully guides you through the complexities of the subject, making it accessible to those with little or no prior legal and/or international knowledge. Key cases and areas of debate are highlighted throughout, and a wealth of references to cases and further readings are provided at the end of each chapter. The book continues to be relied upon by students worldwide as the first book to turn to for clear and accurate coverage. The book traces the unprecedented expansion in the internationally recognized rights of all people with acceptance of a human rights dimension to the quest for international peace and security following the formation of the United Nations in 1945. It examines the International Bill of Rights and the regional protection of human rights, and describes several human rights organizations including the Organization of American States and the African Union. The book discusses different types of rights, including the right to life, the right to liberty of person, and the right to an adequate standard of living, and also evaluates the monitoring, implementation, and enforcement of human rights laws.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

17. Freedoms and liberties in the United Kingdom  

This chapter is concerned with how freedoms and liberties might be protected in the UK. It begins with an attempt to distinguish between human rights and civil liberties, whilst recognizing that this is by no means a straightforward task. It then covers political and social or economic rights, the traditional means of protecting civil liberties in the UK, the European Convention on Human Rights, the incorporation of the Convention into English law, and judicial deference/discretionary areas of judgment. The Human Rights Act 1998 is reviewed from a protection of rights perspective. Finally, the question of a Bill of Rights for the UK is considered, along with reform intentions relating to the 1998 Act.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

7. Article 4: Freedom from Slavery, Servitude, or Forced or Compulsory Labour  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 4 prohibits slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The Court has extended the scope of Article 4 to cover ‘domestic slavery’ and human trafficking. In particular, states have positive obligations to act against conduct by private employers or persons involved in trafficking. Whereas the prohibitions of slavery and servitude are absolute, certain forms of forced or compulsory labour are permitted, for example in fulfilment of a civic duty and work by a convicted prisoner.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

10. Substantive rights—general comments  

This chapter discusses the reality of human rights protection within States. It addresses the limitations of various rights and the extent to which States can deviate from responsibility in terms of international human rights law. It covers issues such as State discretion in selecting and applying rights, particularly through derogations, reservations, declarations, and denunciations. This builds on the introduction to treaty law provided in Chapter 1. These are issues which impact on almost all human rights and almost all States in some way. Cases and communications are drawn on to illustrate the practical implications.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

18. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998  

One of the most fundamental aspects of any constitution are the provisions and measures that protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. In the UK, rights protection is markedly different to that in America, in chief because there is no entrenched Bill of Rights. Rights protection is dominated by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), incorporated by the Human Rights Act 1998, which sets out a number of positive rights that are actionable in the UK courts. This chapter discusses the ways in which these rights are protected in the UK Constitution. It discusses the courts’ historic civil liberties approach and common law protection of rights, before then examining the development, incorporation, and application of the ECHR. The chapter also explores the way in which the various sections of the Human Rights Act 1998 work to ensure appropriate enforcement and protection of rights in UK law.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

9. Human rights in the European Union  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter begins with a brief history of human rights protection in Europe, including the separate role of the Council of Europe and the ECHR, as well as that of the EU and EU law. It then discusses the development of human rights protection by the EU; the need for human rights protection against the EU and its Member States; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU; the enforcement of human rights in EU law; and the possibility of EU accession to the ECHR.

Book

Cover International Human Rights Law

Edited by Daniel Moeckli, Sangeeta Shah, Sandesh Sivakumaran, and David Harris

Written by leading experts in the field, International Human Rights Law explores the essentials of international human rights law, from foundational issues to substantive rights and systems of protection. It also addresses contemporary challenges, such as climate change and pandemics, ensuring students are aware of the current and future importance of these issues. A variety of perspectives bring this multifaceted and sometimes contentious subject to life, making the book the ideal companion for students and practitioners of human rights. Breadth and depth of coverage provide a thorough and complete guide for students of international human rights law. Each chapter is written by an expert in their respective field. The book includes useful features such as chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and questions for reflection to stimulate further thinking on the issues considered. New to this fourth edition are chapters on rights and obligations, climate change, and pandemics.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

13. Article 10: Freedom of Expression  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression. It first delineates the boundaries of protection of Article 10. It then turns to different categories of expression; specific issues relating to the press and media licensing; the standard ‘prescribed by law’; legitimate aims; the notion of ‘duties and responsibilities’ of the bearers of expression rights; and some distinct methodologies advanced by the Court to deal with defamation cases. The chapter considers the restrictions on expression permitted by Article 10.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

19. Articles 16–18: Other Restrictions upon the Rights Protected  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Articles 16–18 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 16 allows potentially wide-ranging interference with the political rights of aliens. Article 17 aims to prevent totalitarian or extremist groups from justifying their activities by relying on the Convention. Article 18 concerns misuse of powers or breaches of the principle of good faith, and must be applied in conjunction with another Convention’s Article(s).

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

21. Article 2, First Protocol: The Right to Education  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 2 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees the right to education. Article 2 extends to all forms of education provided or permitted by the state—primary, secondary, and higher education, as well as to private schools and universities. The right to education consists of a variety of rights and freedoms for children and parents. These mostly belong to the pupil or student, but parents do have certain rights of their own under Article 2 about the way in which their child is educated.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

22. Article 3, First Protocol: The Right to Free Elections  

David Harris, Michael O’boyle, Ed Bates, Carla M. Buckley, KreŠimir Kamber, ZoË Bryanston-Cross, Peter Cumper, and Heather Green

This chapter discusses Article 3 of the First Protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes a positive obligation on states to secure free elections. The Court has read into this text individual rights to vote and to stand for election, reversing its technique of deriving positive obligations from the expressly articulated guarantees of individual rights contained in other Articles of the Convention. The right of prisoners to vote is included.

Chapter

Cover Harris, O'Boyle, and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights

13. Article 10: Freedom of expression  

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression. It first delineates the boundaries of protection of Article 10. It then turns to different categories of expression; specific issues relating to the press and media licensing; the standard ‘prescribed by law’; legitimate aims; the notion of ‘duties and responsibilities’ of the bearers of expression rights; and some distinct methodologies advanced by the Court to deal with defamation cases.