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This chapter considers the relationship between land law and human rights. From a distinctly land law perspective, the human rights discourse has given rise to much debate, which continues to fuel much academic commentary. The chapter focuses on the key European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) rights incorporated into domestic law by the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) — namely, Art. 1 of the First Protocol to the ECHR and Art. 8 of the ECHR. It identifies other Convention rights which exert an influence on land law. It begins with a brief summary of the broader machinery of the HRA 1998.

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This chapter examines human rights law and how the European Convention on Human Rights has been implemented in the UK. The Convention rights and freedoms originated from the Second World War, when the Council of Europe developed a set of universal human rights to protect all the citizens of Europe. The Convention was formally incorporated into English law through the Human Rights Act 1998, and contains a number of Articles, which are the statements of legal rights, known as ‘Convention rights’. These rights represent the basic freedoms and minimum standards that are to be expected for all citizens in a democratic society. There are three fundamental characteristics of a Convention rights: each right is inherent — it exists as a separate and essential part of a free human being; it is inalienable — it cannot be given or taken away; and it is universal — it is common to all.

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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses the idea of human rights, as well as a range of political and constitutional issues to which they give rise. The general history of the international protection of human rights from which the UK system is derived is also introduced. The chapter furthermore presents examples of human rights abuses specific to the UK that are, to some extent, at the mild end of the full spectrum of human rights abuses found in other parts of Europe or in the rest of the world. The concept of human rights assumes that all reasonable human beings share the feeling that, in whatever they do, they need to accord proper respect to the dignity of all individual human beings. States and governments, in particular, must ensure that individual dignity is respected in their laws and practices.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses the idea of human rights, as well as a range of political and constitutional issues to which they give rise. The general history of the international protection of human rights from which the UK system is derived is also introduced. The chapter furthermore presents examples of human rights abuses specific to the UK that are, to some extent, at the mild end of the full spectrum of human rights abuses found in other parts of Europe or in the rest of the world. The concept of human rights assumes that all reasonable human beings share the feeling that, in whatever they do, they need to accord proper respect to the dignity of all individual human beings. States and governments, in particular, must ensure that individual dignity is respected in their laws and practices.

Chapter

One of the most important, complex, and controversial concepts in legal theory is that of a ‘right’. Apart from the analytical discussion, there is an inevitable debate concerning the difference between what constitutes a right, on the one hand, and what rights individuals or groups actually have or should have, on the other. This distinction between analytical and normative jurisprudence recurs throughout the literature. This chapter explores the concept of rights, various theories and types of rights (including human and animal rights), and concludes with a brief exercise in ‘applied jurisprudence’ that demonstrates how ostensibly competing approaches to a central democratic right are played out.

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One of the most important and controversial concepts that preoccupies legal and moral philosophers is that of a ‘right’. To have a right raises the distinction between what a right is, on the one hand, and what rights people actually have or should have, on the other. This is the difference between a moral and a legal right that is a recurring theme in discussions of this subject. This chapter examines the concept of rights, various theories and types of rights (including human and animal rights), and concludes with a brief exercise in ‘applied jurisprudence’ that attempts to show how apparently competing approaches to a crucial democratic right may be resolved.

Book

International Human Rights Law provides a concise introduction for students new to the subject. Clearly written and broad in scope, this popular text gives a concise introduction to international human rights, including regional systems of protection and the key substantive rights. The author skillfully guides you through the complexities of the subject, making it accessible to those with little or no prior legal and/or international knowledge. Key cases and areas of debate are highlighted throughout, and a wealth of references to cases and further readings are provided at the end of each chapter. The book continues to be relied upon by students worldwide as the first book to turn to for clear and accurate coverage. It discusses the United Nations; the United Nations’ organizational structure; regional protection of human rights; Europe; the Americas; Africa; key treaties and mechanisms for monitoring, implementing, and enforcing human rights; substantive rights; equality and non-discrimination; the right to life; freedom from torture; cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment; the rights to liberty of person; equality before the law; the right to a fair trial; the right to self-determination; freedom of expression; the right to work; the right to education and human rights education; minority rights; and group rights.

Book

International Human Rights Law provides a concise introduction for students new to the subject. Clearly written and broad in scope, this popular text gives a concise introduction to international human rights, including regional systems of protection and the key substantive rights. The author skillfully guides you through the complexities of the subject, making it accessible to those with little or no prior legal and/or international knowledge. Key cases and areas of debate are highlighted throughout, and a wealth of references to cases and further readings are provided at the end of each chapter. The book continues to be relied upon by students worldwide as the first book to turn to for clear and accurate coverage. It discusses the United Nations; the International Bill of Human Rights; the United Nations’ organizational structure; regional protection of human rights; Europe; the Americas; Africa; monitoring, implementing, and enforcing human rights; substantive rights; equality and non-discrimination; the right to life; freedom from torture; cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment; the rights to liberty of person; equality before the law; the right to a fair trial; the right to self-determination; freedom of expression; the right to work; the right to education and human rights education; minority rights; and group rights.

Chapter

This chapter examines human rights protection in the UK. It examines the reasons why the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was enacted, the effects of the HRA, the principal mechanisms through which the HRA affords protection to human rights in UK law, the scope of the HRA, and the debate concerning the potential repeal, reform, or replacement of the HRA. The chapter also introduces the notion of human rights, including the practical and philosophical cases for their legal protection, and the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the HRA gives effect in UK law.

Chapter

This chapter examines human rights protection in the UK. It examines the reasons why the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was enacted, the effects of the HRA, the principal mechanisms through which the HRA affords protection to human rights in UK law; the scope of the HRA; and the debate concerning the potential repeal, reform, or replacement of the HRA. The chapter also introduces the notion of human rights, including the practical and philosophical cases for their legal protection, and the European Convention on Human Rights, to which the HRA gives effect in UK law.

Chapter

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

The European Convention on Human Rights not only guaranteed certain rights, but also created an international Court. The Human Rights Act gives English judges dramatic but limited techniques for vindicating the Convention rights. This chapter explains what the judges in Strasbourg and in England have done with the techniques for control of administration that result from the Convention and the Human Rights Act. The chapter addresses the content and the structure of the Convention rights, the ways in which those rights are protected in English administrative law, particularly through the Human Rights Act 1998, and the tests of proportionality required by the Convention.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the rules of international law that confer protection to individuals under the law of human rights. It first considers the role and nature of human rights law and the development of the law of human rights before turning to a discussion of the protection of human rights under the United Nations through various instruments such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966. It also looks at the role of the UN Economic and Social Council and the Human Rights Council in the development of human rights law, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1966, other specialised agencies and subsidiary organs of the UN that are also involved in the promotion and protection of human rights, and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Protocols 4, 6, 7, and 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Protocols 4 and 7 protect a selection of civil and political rights not covered by the main Convention text and which make up for the substantive deficiencies of the Convention when compared to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Protocols 6 and 13 concern the abolition of the death penalty in peacetime and in war, respectively.

Chapter

Samantha Besson

This chapter discusses the importance of justifying human rights, particularly in response to critics. It explains the following: why we need to justify human rights; what it means to justify human rights; what the different justifications for human rights may be; and what some of the implications of the justifications of human rights may be for other key issues in human rights theory.

Chapter

Theo van Boven

This chapter discusses different human rights categories. A first categorization distinguishes civil and political rights from economic, social, and cultural rights. This distinction is, however, increasingly contested, and should not disguise the mutual relationship between these rights as essential conditions for the life and well-being of the human person. A second distinction is that between the rights of individuals and the rights of collectivities, in particular indigenous peoples. Collective rights offer parameters for the effective enjoyment of individual rights. A third distinction is that between core rights and other rights, raising the issue of whether there is a ranking among human rights as to their fundamental nature. It is argued that basic substantive rights determining the life, survival, dignity, and worth of individuals and peoples may be considered as core rights. The chapter finally discusses the question of whether ‘new human rights’ are emerging. It suggests that this question be approached with caution, and that human rights should be understood in an inclusive and newly focused manner, encompassing hitherto marginalized and excluded groups and human beings.

Chapter

This chapter is concerned with how freedoms and liberties might be protected in the UK. It begins with an attempt to distinguish between human rights and civil liberties, whilst recognizing that this is by no means a straightforward task. It then covers political and social or economic rights, the traditional means of protecting civil liberties in the UK, the European Convention on Human Rights, the incorporation of the Convention into English law, and judicial deference/discretionary areas of judgment. The Human Rights Act 1998 is reviewed from a protection of rights perspective. Finally, the question of a Bill of Rights for the UK is considered.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the protection of freedoms and liberties in the UK. It begins by distinguishing between human rights and civil liberties. It then covers political and social or economic rights, the traditional means of protecting civil liberties in the UK, the European Convention on Human Rights, the incorporation of the Convention into English law, and judicial deference/discretionary areas of judgment. The Human Rights Act 1998 is reviewed from a protection of rights perspective. Finally, the question of a Bill of Rights for the UK is considered.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Republic of Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Ireland v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 25, European Court of Human Rights. This case concerned whether interrogation techniques employed by the United Kingdom in Northern Ireland between 1971 and 1975 amounted to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment, contrary to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. More generally, the case note considers the differences between absolute, limited, and qualified rights. The case predates the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb.