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Cover Contract Law

TT Arvind

Contract Law provides a uniquely practical approach to the topic; enriched with scenarios to support deep understanding of legal principles, analysis, and critique. The text is divided into four parts. Part I covers forming contracts. It looks at bargaining and agreeing, and the requirements of mutuality, legal relations, and non-contractual promises. Part II considers issues related to keeping contracts. It examines the assembling of the contract, interpreting the terms of a contract, flexible terms, and changes in contracts. The next part is about regulating contracts. It looks at untrue statements, the limits of hard bargaining, controlling contractual terms, and protecting the public interest. The final part is about enforcing contracts. The text here examines issues relating to breach of contract, compensatory remedies, non-compensatory remedies, and third party matters.


Cover Contract Law

12. The limits of hard bargaining  

Duress and undue influence

This chapter examines how English law sets limits to hard bargaining through the application of the doctrines of duress and undue influence. It first considers the problem of coercion in contractual transactions and how the doctrine of duress deals with coercion through the use of threats. It then discusses three key elements of duress: the impact of the pressure on the person who was subject to it, the need to prove illegitimacy, and the pressure must induce the decision to contract. It also describes remedies for duress and proceeds with an analysis of the scope and nature of undue influence, the elements of actual undue influence, presumed undue influence, remedies for undue influence, and specific issues that arise in relation to undue influence where third parties are involved. The chapter concludes with an overview of the regulation of aggressive practices.