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Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

11. General Defences  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses general defences, covering key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plan, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the concept of negligence; the Occupier’s Liability Acts; the defence of volenti non fit injuria; the defence of contributory negligence and the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945; and the defence of illegality—ex turpi causa non oritur action.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

14. General defences  

David Ormerod and John Child

This chapter deals with general complete defences that the accused can use to avoid liability. The focus is on defences that can apply (with one exception) to offences throughout the criminal law and will result in the accused’s acquittal. Five kinds of general complete defences are examined: insanity (as a defence), duress by threats, duress by circumstances, the public and private defence (also known as self-defence), and necessity. The chapter first considers the categorical division between excuses and justifications, before explaining the elements of each of the defences in turn. It then outlines potential options for legal reform concerning individual defences and concludes by discussing the application of the general defences to problem facts. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

14. General defences  

This chapter deals with general complete defences that the accused can use to avoid liability. The focus is on defences that can apply (with one exception) to offences throughout the criminal law and will result in the accused’s acquittal. Five kinds of general complete defences are examined: insanity (as a defence), duress by threats, duress by circumstances, the public and private defence (also known as self-defence), and necessity. The chapter first considers the categorical division between excuses and justifications, before explaining the elements of each of the defences in turn. It then outlines potential options for legal reform concerning individual defences and concludes by discussing the application of the general defences to problem facts. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Law

16. Collective Security and the use of Armed Force  

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

The Cold War era prevented the UN Security Council from using most of the powers provided for by the UN Charter, including adopting measures under Chapter VII (the so-called ‘collective security system’ which provides for measures ranging from sanctions to the use of armed force) for events deemed (by the Security Council) to be threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression. However, the end of the Cold War enabled the Security Council to take some of the measures short of force envisaged in Article 41 and to interpret creatively the provisions of the Charter so as to authorize enforcement action through the use of armed force by individual States or coalitions of States. This chapter discusses measures short of armed force; peacekeeping operations; resort to force by States, as well as regional and other organizations, upon authorization of the Security Council; the special case of authorization to use force given by the General Assembly; as well as the right to self-defence and the various situations in which armed force has been used unilaterally by States.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

11. General inchoate offences  

David Ormerod and John Child

This chapter deals with general inchoate offences. A person’s conduct may be inchoate (‘just begun’, ‘undeveloped’), but also deserving of criminalisation. The chapter is structured around the three general inchoate offences, namely: attempt, conspiracy, and assisting or encouraging. It explains the actus reus and mens rea of each of these offences, along with specific defences. It also looks at double inchoate liability, substantive offences in an inchoate form, and potential options for legal reform concerning the actus reus of attempts, the mens rea of attempts and conspiracy, and assisting and encouraging. Finally, the chapter discusses the application of general inchoate offences within problem questions. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Essentials of Criminal Law

11. General inchoate offences  

This chapter deals with general inchoate offences. A person’s conduct may be inchoate (‘just begun’, ‘undeveloped’), but also deserving of criminalisation. The chapter is structured around the three general inchoate offences, namely: attempt, conspiracy, and assisting or encouraging. It explains the actus reus and mens rea of each of these offences, along with specific defences. It also looks at double inchoate liability, substantive offences in an inchoate form, and potential options for legal reform concerning the actus reus of attempts, the mens rea of attempts and conspiracy, and assisting and encouraging. Finally, the chapter discusses the application of general inchoate offences within problem questions. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Book

Cover Criminal Law Directions
Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Criminal Law Directions is written with an emphasis on explaining the key topics of Criminal Law courses with clarity. The book starts by offering an introduction to criminal law. It also looks at the issues of actus reus and mens rea. It goes on to consider topics such as strict liability; murder and voluntary manslaughter; involuntary manslaughter; non-fatal offences against the person; and sexual offences. It moves on to look at theft and other offences against property, including robbery, burglary, blackmail, handling, and criminal damage. Fraud and drugs offences are then examined and general and specific defences are explored. Finally the book considers inchoate offences and accessorial liability.

Book

Cover Criminal Law

Michael Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Textbook on Criminal Law has been providing students of criminal law with a readable and reliable introduction to the subject for the past 30 years. This is the sixteenth edition, which has been updated to include all of the latest case law and statutory changes. Topics covered include actus reus, mens rea, negligence and strict liability, and capacity and incapacitating conditions. It also examines general defences, parties to crime, inchoate offences, and homicide. Towards the end of the book chapters consider non-fatal offences, sexual offences, offences under the Theft Acts 1968 and 1978, fraud, and criminal damage.