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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

L’Estrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in L’Estrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

L’Estrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in L’Estrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd [1983] 2 AC 803  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd [1983] 2 AC 803. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd [1983] 2 AC 803  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd [1983] 2 AC 803. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

5. Exclusion and limitation clauses  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on clauses designed to exclude or limit a party’s liability, first considers exclusion or limitation clauses in the UK under common law rules, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the distinction between an exclusion clause and a limitation clause before discussing the two main methods of controlling exclusion clauses adopted by the courts. The chapter examines the exclusion or restriction of the statutory implied terms under the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982. Finally, it considers the rules introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 in relation to consumer transactions.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

6. The Terms of a Contract  

This chapter discusses the terms of a contract. The terms are the contents of the contract. They also state what the parties’ legal duties and obligations are to each other. Terms may be written, oral, or even implied into a contract. This chapter discusses the difference between a term of a contract and a representation and the difference between express and implied terms. It considers the types of contractual terms, conditions, warranties, and innominate terms, and the distinction between them. The nature of exemption clauses and the methods used by the courts to restrict the use of such clauses and the effects on exemption clauses of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and Consumer Rights Act 2015 are examined. The chapter concludes with a discussion of restraint of trade clauses commonly found in contracts of employment, contracts for the sale of businesses, and solus agreements

Book

Cover Contract Law Directions

Richard Taylor and Damian Taylor

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers at undergraduate level through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Contract Law Directions is a comprehensive guide, now in its eighth edition, to all aspects of contract law. It is structured in four parts. Part 1 looks at the creation of obligations. It considers agreement, intention to create legal regulations, and consideration and estoppel. Part 2 is about contents and borders and looks at positive terms, exemption clauses, and misrepresentation. Part 3 examines defects in terms of mistake, duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains. The final part explains finishing and enforcing obligations. It analyses frustration, damages, specific remedies, and privity and the interests of third parties.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Goodlife Foods Ltd v Hall Fire Protection Ltd [2018] EWCA Civ 1371  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Goodlife Foods Ltd v Hall Fire Protection Ltd [2018] EWCA Civ 1371. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Goodlife Foods Ltd v Hall Fire Protection Ltd [2018] EWCA Civ 1371  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Goodlife Foods Ltd v Hall Fire Protection Ltd [2018] EWCA Civ 1371. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Parker v The South Eastern Railway Company (1877) 2 CPD 416. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Book

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

Jack Beatson FBA, Andrew Burrows FBA, QC (Hon), and John Cartwright

Anson’s Law of Contract offers an accurate and authoritative account of the law and its underlying principles. This 31st edition continues to provide comprehensive and detailed coverage of all topics covered on modern contract law courses, and has been revised and updated to incorporate all notable developments in case law, legislation, and academic debate. Topics covered include, in the first part, the agreement, the formation of the contract, and promissory estoppel. The second part looks at the terms of the contract, exemption clauses, and unfair terms. Next the book looks at incapacity, mistake, misrepresentation and non-disclosure, duress, and illegality. The fourth part considers performance and discharge. The next part looks at damages and specific remedies. The sixth part of the book covers third parties, assignment and agency in terms of the limits of the contractual obligation.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

6. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter discusses the common law and statutory rules governing exemption clauses, and the control of unfair terms. Written contracts frequently contain clauses excluding or limiting liability. This is particularly so in the case of ‘standard form’ documents drawn up by one of the parties or a trade association to which one of the parties belong. At common law there are special rules on the incorporation of exemption clauses, special rules of construction applicable to them, and a few miscellaneous other common law rules designed to control them. The chapter first considers those common law rules before going on to the legislative control of exemption clauses and unfair terms. The focus of the discussion of statutory control is the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 for non-consumer contracts, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015 for consumer contracts.

Book

Cover Contract Law Directions

Richard Taylor and Damian Taylor

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers at undergraduate level through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Contract Law Directions is a comprehensive guide, now in its ninth edition, to all aspects of contract law. It is structured in four parts. Part 1 looks at the creation of obligations. It considers agreement, intention to create legal regulations, and consideration and estoppel. Part 2 is about contents and borders and looks at positive terms, exemption clauses, and misrepresentation. Part 3 examines defects in terms of mistake, duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains. The final part explains finishing and enforcing obligations. It analyses frustration, damages, specific remedies, and privity and the interests of third parties.

Book

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

Jill Poole, James Devenney, and Adam Shaw-Mellors

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Contract Law Concentrate contains a wealth of information on the field of contract law to aid with revision and understanding the elements of the contract law syllabus. It looks specifically at the components of agreement, enforceability criteria comprising intention to create legal relations, consideration, and the doctrine of promissory estoppel. It also focuses on some problems associated with reaching agreement, such as whether the terms are sufficiently certain, and mistakes which prevent agreement. The doctrine of privity determines who has the ability to enforce the contract and whether a third party can take the intended benefit of a contract. Contract Law Concentrate focuses on the terms (or promises) of the contract and breach of contract when those promises are broken. It also examines exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. Next it looks at remedies for the breach of contract. It then turns to contractual impossibility and risk where the default rules of common mistake (initial impossibility) and frustration (subsequent impossibility) will determine the parties’ positions in the absence of party allocation. Finally, it outlines contractual remedies for actionable misrepresentations and looks briefly at the common law doctrine of duress and the equitable doctrine of undue influence.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

10. Exemption clauses and legislation  

This chapter deals with the statutory policing of exemption clauses under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UCTA) and addresses the changes to the law made by the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the structure of UCTA and how to use it. It considers the different types of situations in which exemption clauses fall within it, under different sections (e.g. s 2 negligence, s 3 written standard terms of business, s 6 and s 7 goods contracts), and the need to consider whether a section renders a clause automatically ineffective or subjects it to the requirement of reasonableness. It looks at the application of the requirement of reasonableness and factors which have been identified as significant, such as the potential for insurance, the availability of alternatives, and reasons for a level of limitation. It considers the meaning of the UCTA’s definition of ‘deals as consumer’.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

13. Misrepresentation  

This chapter explains the law relating to the requirements and remedies for misrepresentation. The rules that the chapter covers developed originally in the context of all types of contracts. However, more recent legislation has introduced some specific protection for consumers. Consequently, the common law rules and older legislation that the chapter covers are now more applicable to non-consumer contracts, i.e. contracts between businesses and those between private parties. The chapter starts by addressing the kind of false statements that can result in a remedy. It then addresses the common law and legislative remedies that could be available to the innocent party. Finally, the chapter turns to the impact of the more recent consumer legislation before finally examining the extent to which an exemption clause could cover liability for misrepresentation.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

7. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

This chapter assesses exemption clauses and unfair terms. Exemption clauses are terms that either exclude or limit the liability of a party. The law relating to the use of such clauses is a mixture of rules found in both the common law and legislation; the common law rules apply to all contracts. In addition, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 applies to the use of exemption clauses in contracts between two businesses. For consumers, the Consumer Rights Act 2015 provides wider protection from unfair terms including exemption clauses. The practical context of exemption clauses is simple. One party will be in breach and so the other will seek compensation for the loss caused by the breach. The party in breach will then defend the action by relying on an exemption clause. The dispute is then about whether or not the clause can be relied upon. The circumstances in which terms might be assessed for being ‘unfair’ can be wider than this. Typically, a business will take action against a consumer following the consumer’s failure to perform an obligation, which will then prompt the consumer to challenge the obligation as based on an unfair term.