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Chapter

Envoi  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter, which summarises the preceding discussions and presents some final thoughts, suggests that we have now entered into a period of substantial change and progress in the field of criminology. Many of the people working in this area are now better equipped to make fuller use of statistical methods. Technological advances—and especially the development of the computer—have also revolutionised both the amount of material that can be collected and, even more, the ways in which it can be analysed and manipulated.

Chapter

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young, and Mandy Burton

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter considers psychological explanations for criminality. The discussions cover the constituents of the personality; formation of the super-ego; balancing the id, ego, and super-ego; ‘normal’ criminals; extroversion and neuroticism; criticism of psychoanalytical theories; the normal criminal personality; and assessment of dangerousness and criminality.

Chapter

Matthew Williams and David Wall

This chapter examines the nature of cybercrime and its implications for criminology. It is organized as follows. The first part traces the evolution of the Internet as an environment for the emergence of cybercrime. The second considers the various conflicting definitional problems of cybercrime and offers a method of resolving them. The third part outlines the problems with measuring cybercrime before providing an indication of the scale of the problem. The fourth part briefly explores how those problems are being resolved. The fifth part looks at the governance and regulation of cybercrime, while the final part provides an overview of the various theoretical explanations.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines terrorism and State violence. It addresses two key questions: Is terrorism criminal? What issues are raised by the responses of governments to their sharply heightened perception of terrorism as a significant threat? On the first question, it is argued that while most acts seen as terrorist can fall under, and be dealt with by normal criminal legislation, there are at least two large areas of complication and ambiguity. On the second question of the legislative responses aimed at controlling terrorism, the chapter focuses on the extent to which, both nationally and internationally, it becomes impossible for governments to avoid confronting the crucial issue of balance.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This introductory chapter sets out the book's purpose, which is to introduce students to the broad study of criminology. The study begins at the end of the nineteenth century and considers theories that have gained credence over the past century or so. It then discusses two important aspects to many theories and the policies used by States in addressing crime, over the period studied. First, are offenders acting entirely out of choice or free will, and can thus be blamed and called to account for their actions? Second, are offenders less volitional in that their choices are limited through structural or social factors which tend to exclude or marginalise some groups or individuals? An overview of the subsequent chapters is also presented.

Chapter

Steve Tombs

This chapter examines the emergence of the concept of corporate crime, discussing its meaning and reviewing the extent to which it represents a crime problem. It then considers various dimensions of corporate crime—its visibility, causation, and control—questioning society's will to censure and punish company directors and other ‘rogue’ capitalists.

Chapter

This chapter considers the debates surrounding the relationships between economic conditions and crime. It examines the links between poverty, inequality, and crime, and discusses concepts such as the underclass and social exclusion. For many, integrating people into work is central to combating social exclusion. At the centre of this debate lie not only matters of power and inequality, but also the need to question the nature of paid work and the position it takes within capitalist society.

Chapter

Derek Kirton

This chapter examines youth crime and responses to it. It discusses the key principles around which youth justice has evolved and how the balance between them has changed over time. The chapter considers some of the main theories and models that have been put forward to explain youth crime, including patterns linked to social divisions based on class, ethnicity, and gender. Attention is also given to recent ‘moral panics’, such as young people's use of weapons, gang activity, and involvement in the 2011 riots. Finally, a review of contemporary youth justice policy and debate regarding its future direction is provided.

Chapter

Jeff Ferrell and Jonathan Ilan

This chapter focuses on the cultural significance of crime. It examines the way in which crime and culture intertwine within the lived experiences of everyday life, and argues that a host of urban crimes are perpetrated by actors for whom transgression serves a number of purposes. The chapter charts a world of underground graffiti artists, gang members, street muggers, and other ‘outsider’ criminals, whose subcultures are increasingly the subject of media, corporate, and political interest.

Chapter

Emma Wincup and Peter Traynor

This chapter examines the relationship between crime and drug and alcohol use. The first part focuses on drug use and addresses three key issues: (a) the nature and extent of drug use; (b) the relationship between drug use and crime; and (c) strategies for reducing drug-related crime. The second part explores the same issues in relation to alcohol use.

Chapter

This chapter examines the link between crime and media. It summarizes major themes and debates that have shaped the research agenda, and considers some less well-rehearsed issues such as the changing global communications marketplace, the development of new media technologies, and the significance of these for understanding the connections between crime and media. The chapter is organized as follows. The first section offers some background information and addresses the crucial question of why exploring media images of crime and control is important. The second section considers how scholars have researched crime and media, and presents an overview of the main findings. The third section examines the dominant theoretical and conceptual tools that have been used to understand and explain media representations of crime. The final section considers the evidence for the influence of media representations, both on criminal behaviour and fear of crime.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines theories on female offending, which include biological, hormonal, and psychological theories; learning theories; masculinity/femininity theories; strain theories; and control theories. Traditional mainstream criminology views male criminality as ‘normal’ and something that merely needs to be kept within reasonable bounds. Female criminality is, however, abnormal, unexpected, and portrayed as pathological and irrational. It is argued that mainstream criminology fails to use social explanations of criminality to explain why women offend or are more conforming than their male counterparts. The most promising ideas so far come from control theories and strain theories, so long as these are applied in a gender-neutral manner.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on criminology as an academic subject, what it looks like and how the student will be expected to study it. The discussion is underpinned by what is called the ‘triad of criminology’, a basic framework for understanding how criminology fits together through the study of definitions of crime, explanations of criminal behaviour, and responses to crime and criminal behaviour. The chapter also considers the interrelationships between criminology and selected other social sciences such as sociology and psychology; categories and theories of crime; and people, organisations, and systems involved in criminal justice. The goal is to prepare the student for his/her journey through criminology — its objectives, structure, content, study methods, and uses. It also explores the type of criminology that the student will consume, critique, and create throughout his/her engagement with this text.

Chapter

Azrini Wahidin

This chapter explores the links between gender and crime, charts the emergence of feminist perspectives within criminology, examines the different kinds of crimes in which men and women are involved, and considers the complex and changing relationship between masculinity(ies), femininity(ies), and crime. It deconstructs how these relations have been typically understood in criminological theory, and looks at the different ways in which men and women are dealt with by the criminal justice system.

Chapter

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young, and Mandy Burton

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines, from both an historical and a contemporary perspective, the assertion that there are biological explanations for crime. It first discusses the birth of positivism and new ideas in biological positivism, and then considers the genetic basis of crime and criminality, covering family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the influence of social factors on criminality, considering factors such as ecology, poverty, unemployment, and lower-class culture. It argues that despite a strong statistical connection, it is not possible to prove a causal connection between crime and social factors. In particular, none of the studies can explain why men seem to be so badly affected and women so little affected.

Chapter

Keith Hayward and Craig Webber

This chapter, which introduces the ways in which psychological research has contributed to the understanding of crime and the criminal justice system. It combines a general review of some of the more prominent psychological explanations of criminal behaviour with some brief examples of how this work came to be employed in criminological theory and practice. At various intervals, the chapter also adopts a more reflexive stance in a bid to develop some critical insights into the way that ‘criminological psychology’ is portrayed and perceived within the popular imagination.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the way in which society might persuade individuals to be law abiding. It looks at the social structures that may help law-abiding behaviour: by implication if they are absent, criminality might well arise. The discussions cover early control theories; individual control; sociological control theories; control balance; facilitating and choosing criminality; community-based origins of conformity; official or institutional control agents; and evaluation of control theories.

Chapter

This chapter begins by addressing the question: what is a crime? It then discusses the role of criminal law; the statistics of criminal behaviour; the ‘principles’ of criminal law; proposals for a Criminal Code; kinds of conduct that should be criminalized; culpability; the victim in criminal law; the criminal process; criminal law and the Human Rights Act 1998; critical criminal law; feminist legal thought; punishment; and sentencing.

Chapter

Andrew Sanders, Richard Young, and Mandy Burton

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the relationship between mental illness and criminality, and the way in which these diseases are viewed by the law. It discusses legal ideas of mental disorder; medical ideas of mental illness; psychopathy; and self-induced mental incapacity.