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Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

7. Reading cases and legislation  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter describes how to read and understand primary sources of law in academia and in practice. It provides examples of legislation (statute and statutory instrument) and case law (including both new and older styles of reporting). Techniques are suggested to read and understand these primary sources of law effectively and efficiently. Annotations are provided to explain the features on which to focus and how to understand what information the sources is supplying, and where. Encouraging familiarity with the layout of a source in turn develops understanding of how to best navigate, read and understand the source. Practical strategies for reading are also included.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

7. Reading cases and legislation  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter describes techniques for reading and understanding law, discussing the practicalities of reading in academia and in practice; sources of law; statutes; statutory instruments; case law; and EU law.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Land Law

1. Exam Skills for Success in Land Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. This chapter gives students advice on the skills for success in land law exams. It includes tips on what to do during the module, how to tackle the revision period, and tips for the exam room, as well as advice on the structure and approach to problem questions. It gives advice which starts from the moment the module begins advising on the best way to approach learning and understanding land law and suggests how to get the best out of your lectures and tutorials or seminars.

Chapter

Cover Criminology Skills

5. Criminal law  

This chapter explains the two main sources of criminal law in the UK: legislation, that is, Acts of Parliament (or statutes), and case law. It discusses the process by which Acts of Parliament come into existence; European Union legislation and the European Convention on Human Rights; criminal courts in which cases are heard and the systems of law reporting; how to find legislation and case law using various online resources; and how to find the criminal law of overseas jurisdictions.

Book

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence
Cross & Tapper on Evidence has become firmly established as a classic of legal literature. This thirteenth edition reflects on all recent changes and developments in this fast-moving subject. In particular, it fully examines new case law relevant to evidence of privilege, character, and hearsay. The inclusion of some comparative material provides an excellent basis for the critical appraisal of English law. This book remains the definitive guide to the law of evidence.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

2. Constitutions and Constitutional Law  

This chapter examines the specific functions and characteristics of constitutions in general terms—thinking of what the constitutions of Western democratic countries are typically like—rather than with particular reference to the UK, and then considers how the UK’s constitutional arrangements measure up. This is followed by three case studies that illustrate how the different topics considered in this book relate to one another, and which also provide an overview of the type—and importance—of the issues with which public law is concerned.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

14. Skills for Success in Coursework Assessments  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses how students can structure their answers to coursework questions, and exposes common errors that students make when undertaking coursework. The starting point for obtaining a good grade in an exam is to answer the question set. It is even more important to do so for coursework questions, as students are usually given plenty of time to plan and prepare their answers, and to ask for additional support if needed. Whether answering a problem question or an essay question, students are required to produce a convincing argument using ‘evidence’ from case law, statutory provisions, and academic literature.

Chapter

Cover How to Moot

4. Choice and use of authorities  

This chapter focuses on the main tool of the mooter's trade — case authorities. It provides answers to the following questions: What is ‘exchange of authorities’ and is it appropriate to rely on the opponent's authorities? How should authorities be chosen? How should authorities be cited? Should research be delegated to others? Can other people's ideas be used? Should help be sought from tutors? In what ways can the law library be used in preparing for a moot presentation? What is the difference between square and round brackets in a case citation? How should electronic information resources be used? When and how should overseas authorities be referred to? What does the Latin mean in a law report? How can old cases be obtained? Is an authority ever too old to use? In addition to reading a report of a judgment of a case, should counsels' arguments also be read?

Book

Cover Administrative Law

William Wade and Christopher Forsyth

Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law provides a perceptive account, and an unparalleled level of coverage, of the principles of judicial review and a sketch of the administrative arrangements of the UK. First published in 1961, Administrative Law a classic text. In the eleventh edition, the text brings its account of administrative law up to date in light of recent case law and legislation. The volume covers the following areas of administrative law: authorities and their functions; the influence of Europe; powers and jurisdiction; discretionary power; natural justice; remedies and liability; and administrative legislation and adjudication.

Book

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

Wade & Forsyth’s Administrative Law provides a perceptive account, and an unparalleled level of coverage, of the principles of judicial review and a sketch of the administrative arrangements of the UK. First published in 1961, Administrative Law a classic text. In the twelfth edition, the text brings its account of administrative law up to date in light of recent case law and legislation. The volume covers the following areas of administrative law: authorities and their functions; the influence of Europe; powers and jurisdiction; discretionary power; natural justice; remedies and liability; and administrative legislation and adjudication.

Book

Cover Borkowski's Law of Succession
Borkowski’s Law of Succession gives full attention to this area’s rich and evolving case law, illustrating the relevance of the law to modern life; the central issues and academic debates surrounding inheritance are discussed fully. This revised edition covers new case law including Ilott v The Blue Cross and subsequent decisions, Payne v Payne, Legg v Burton, and Hand v George, and new legislation including the Civil Partnerships, Marriages and Deaths (Registration etc) Act 2019. The text also looks at relevant Law Commission projects (in particular the recent consultation paper on Making A Will). Finally, there is discussion of the latest succession law scholarship.

Book

Cover Tort Law Directions
Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This book covers all the core areas of tort law, combining an engaging approach with plenty of learning features. It provides a detailed introduction to the key principles of tort law, and illustrates the points of law through discussions of important court cases. Key cases are discussed to illustrate the main principles of tort law; they help to bring the subject to life, allowing students to see how the law operates in practice. This new edition of the text includes increased focus on the influence of human rights on tort law. It is fully updated with recent case law highlighting how quickly tort law is developing particularly.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

10. Retained EU Law and Legal Method  

Since 1973, the English legal system has been radically affected by what is now called ‘EU law’. Following the Brexit referendum the UK has now left the EU but there remains a legacy of nearly fifty years of EU-related legislation and case law to contend with. The solution has been to keep a large amount of that EU-derived law, termed ‘Retained Law’, as if it had been created by our Parliament and courts in the first place. The mechanism for dealing with how that has been achieved, and the implication for the future, is discussed here.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

1. Introduction  

This book focuses on employment law, which has been the subject of as rapid a transformation as can have happened to any legal subject in recent times, and is certainly one of the most difficult areas of law in which to keep up to date. In some ways employment law is a curious mixture of ancient and modern, for much old law lies behind or at the basis of new statutory law and in some cases the old law continues to exist alongside the new. The subject is, however, unrecognizable from what it was only 40 years ago, with the enormous increase in statute law and the ever-increasing volume of case law on the modern statutes. Thus, the intending student must be able to exercise the lawyer’s skill in dealing with both extensive case law and major statutes, sometimes of astounding complexity. As well as setting out the history of this area of law, this chapter covers important background features of procedure and the enforcement of the law through tribunals, including significant developments such as ACAS early conciliation, the fiasco over tribunal fees, and possible future reforms to the system of adjudication.

Chapter

Cover Smith & Wood's Employment Law

1. Introduction  

Ian Smith, Owen Warnock, and Gemma Mitchell

This book focuses on employment law, which has been the subject of as rapid a transformation as can have happened to any legal subject in recent times, and is certainly one of the most difficult areas of law in which to keep up to date. In some ways employment law is a curious mixture of ancient and modern, for much old law lies behind or at the basis of new statutory law and in some cases the old law continues to exist alongside the new. The subject is, however, unrecognizable from what it was only 40 years ago, with the enormous increase in statute law and the ever-increasing volume of case law on the modern statutes. Thus, the intending student must be able to exercise the lawyer’s skill in dealing with both extensive case law and major statutes, sometimes of astounding complexity. As well as setting out the history of this area of law, this chapter covers important background features of procedure and the enforcement of the law through tribunals, including significant developments such as ACAS early conciliation, the fiasco over tribunal fees, and possible future reforms to the system of adjudication.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

2. Legal systems and sources of law  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on the sources of law in England & Wales, and is organised as follows. Section 2.1 describes the key jurisdictions relevant to lawyers in England and Wales. Section 2.2 deals with the issue of where the law comes from: sources of law. Section 2.3 reviews the development of the two ‘traditional’ sources of law in England and Wales: case law and statutes. Sections 2.4 and 2.5 consider the status and operation of EU and international law, including the potential effect of Brexit. Section 2.7 goes on to discuss public and private law, common law, and civil law, and other classifications used by lawyers. This is followed by a discussion of legal systems and their cultures across the world.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

2. Legal systems and sources of law  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on the sources of law in England & Wales, and is organised as follows. Section 2.1 describes the key jurisdictions relevant to lawyers in England and Wales. Section 2.2 deals with the issue of where the law comes from: sources of law. Section 2.3 reviews the development of the two ‘traditional’ sources of law in England and Wales: case law and statutes. Sections 2.4 and 2.5 consider the status and operation of EU and international law, including the potential effect of Brexit. Section 2.7 goes on to discuss public and private law, common law, and civil law, and other classifications used by lawyers. This is followed by a discussion of legal systems and their cultures across the world.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

2. Finding the Law  

This chapter introduces the main resources and techniques needed for legal research, the development of legal ‘information literacy’, and the appropriate methods to undertake research: the capabilities necessary for learning and working in an information-rich, digital society. It demonstrates how digital technologies are changing the nature of law and legal information from physical to a virtual space, and with it the research process. Digital media have created new challenges, for example for intellectual property law, for data security and protection, and for the criminal law in responding to a wide range of electronic crime. The discussion of specific research tools and techniques covers literary sources; case law; legislation; EU law; and using a number of online resources.

Chapter

Cover International Law

6. The Practical Working of the Law of Treaties  

Malgosia Fitzmaurice

This chapter examines key structural questions and fundamental problems relating to the law of treaties. These structural matters include: the concept of a treaty; the anatomy of treaties (including the making of treaties; authority to conclude treaties; expression of consent to be bound; invalidity of treaties (non-absolute grounds for invalidity of treaties, absolute grounds for invalidity of treaties, amendment, and modification); suspension and termination). The key issues addressed include the scope of legal obligation (the principle pacta sunt servanda, treaties, and third States); interpretation and reservation to treaties (including interpretative declarations); and finally, problems concerning the grounds for termination (supervening impossibility and material breach). The chapter also considers the theory and practice of the law of treaties, with broad analysis of the case law of various international courts and tribunals, with special emphasis on jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, and Human Rights

16. Locus Standi  

This chapter focuses on the concept of locus standi, perhaps the most important way in which administrative law deals with the question of how to balance the protection of individual citizens’ rights and interests with the desire to ensure that government decision-making remains within legal limits and that government bodies (including the courts) are protected from vexatious litigants. It is organised as follows. The first section addresses the law that existed prior to the introduction of the Order 53 reforms in 1977 whilst the second covers the short period between the introduction of those reforms and the House of Lords’ decision in IRC v National Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses. The third section runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. The pervasive analytical concerns are to explore the way the law of locus standi interacts with the question of the choice of procedure issues which were addressed in chapter fifteen, and—more broadly—to assess how those two matters both singly and in combination structure in a practical sense the way our constitution gives effect to the various values inherent in theories relating to the rule of law and sovereignty of Parliament.