1-20 of 20 Results

  • Keyword: EU Member States x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

4. The Supremacy of EU Law and its Reception in the Member States  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the supremacy of EU law and its reception in Member States. Both the legal arguments for supremacy and the political logic are often considered in establishing the reasoning for EU law supremacy. The first question concentrates on the reasons for EU law supremacy from the point of view of the Union and in the view of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU (or also abbreviated CoJ)). A general question about the exit process of a state by a Member State in the light of Brexit is included.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Concentrate

4. Direct actions in the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Articles 258–260, 263, 265, 277, and 340 TFEU

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses articles in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) that provide for actions that are brought directly before the Court. Under Articles 258 and 259 TFEU, respectively, the European Commission and Member States may bring enforcement proceedings against a Member State in breach of Treaty obligations. Article 260 TFEU, requires compliance with the Court’s judgment. Article 263 TFEU concerns judicial review of EU acts. The outcome of a successful action is annulment. Article 265 TFEU provides for actions against the EU institutions for failure to act.

Chapter

Cover Foster on EU Law

5. The Supremacy of EU Law  

This chapter examines the supremacy of EU law from both the point of view of the Union, as understood by the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the point of view of member states. A consensus seems to be emerging from the national and constitutional courts that EU law supremacy is accepted only in so far as it does not infringe the individual rights protection of the national constitutions, in which case the constitutional courts will exercise their reserved rights over national constitutions to uphold them over inconsistent EU law or to review EU law in light of their own constitutions.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

5. Member State liability in damages  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a very wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the circumstances in which Member State liability will arise. The discussions cover in depth the establishment of the principle of State liability; the Francovich test governing the imposition of State liability; the development of the principle of State liability; the Factortame test governing the imposition of State liability; the relationship between State liability and direct effect/indirect effect; and the relationship between State liability and EU liability under Article 340 TFEU.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

4. Fundamental Rights  

This chapter explores the sources of EU fundamental rights. Fundamental rights constitutionally limit the exercise of all European Union competences—including its legislative competences. Three sources of European fundamental rights have been developed: an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law; the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The chapter investigates these three bills of rights of the EU, beginning with the discovery of an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law. Following this, the chapter analyses the EU’s ‘written’ bill of rights in the form of its Charter of Fundamental Rights and then explores the ECHR as an external bill of rights for the EU. It finally explores the extent to which EU fundamental rights also apply to the Member States.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

19. Free Movement of Goods: Duties, Charges, and Taxes  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter deals with Member State action that creates barriers to trade. The most obvious form of protectionism occurs through customs duties or charges that have an equivalent effect, with the object of rendering foreign goods more expensive than their domestic counterparts. This is addressed by Articles 28-30 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). A state may also attempt to benefit domestic goods by taxes that discriminate against imports, which is covered by Articles 110-113 TFEU. These issues are considered within the chapter. The UK version contains a further section analysing the way in which issues of customs duties and taxation are likely to be resolved in future trade relations between the EU and the UK.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

3. The Sources, Forms, and Individual Remedies of EU Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter includes questions on a wide variety of often overlapping points concerned with the sources of European Union (EU) law. The EU sources of law are the Treaties, Protocols, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which are regarded as primary sources. There is then the secondary legislation to consider which can be enacted by the institutions of the Union by virtue of the powers given by the Member States and contained in the Treaties. Additional sources of law in the EU legal order are agreements with third countries, fundamental rights, general principles, and the case law of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) establishing, amongst other case law developments, the doctrine of direct effects, supremacy of EU law, and state liability.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

19. Free Movement of Goods: Duties, Charges, and Taxes  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter deals with Member State action that creates barriers to trade. The most obvious form of protectionism occurs through customs duties or charges that have an equivalent effect, with the object of rendering foreign goods more expensive than their domestic counterparts. This is addressed by Articles 28-30 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). A state may also attempt to benefit domestic goods by taxes that discriminate against imports, which is covered by Articles 110-113 TFEU. These issues are considered within the chapter. The UK version contains a further section analysing the way in which issues of customs duties and taxation are likely to be resolved in future trade relations between the EU and the UK.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

15. Free movement of capital  

Leo Flynn

This chapter discusses EU law on the free movement of capital. It first considers the development of the current rules on capital, focusing on their material scope, direct effect, and role in relation to third countries. It then explains how the concept of restrictions, which is a feature of all internal market freedoms, operates in relation to capital. Next, it deals with the power of Member States to limit capital flows between different parts of the Union, as well as into and out of the Union. Finally, it examines the effects of case law regarding capital movement in relation to philanthropic and charitable activities, in order to see how the free movement of capital affects the ability of Member States to design the instruments by which they organize the delivery of services they consider are in the public interest.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

24. EU criminal law  

András Csúri and John R Spencer

This chapter examines what EU criminal law consists of; the reasons for its existence; and the mechanism by which it is created. It then describes the more important of its practical manifestations. It shows that Member States are torn between the practical necessity for certain problems in the area of criminal law to be dealt with at an EU level, and a deep-seated ideological resistance to this happening. A consequence of this is that the bulk of the EU instruments of which EU criminal law is composed are designed to help and encourage the criminal justice systems of the various Member States to work together, rather than to impose upon them uniform rules of criminal law or criminal procedure devised by EU law-making institutions.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

15. Free movement of capital  

Leo Flynn

This chapter discusses EU law on the free movement of capital. It first considers the development of the current rules on capital, focusing on their material scope, direct effect, and role in relation to third countries. It then explains how the concept of restrictions, which is a feature of all internal market freedoms, operates in relation to capital. Next, it deals with the power of Member States to limit capital flows between different parts of the Union, as well as into and out of the Union. Finally, it examines the effects of case law regarding capital movement in relation to philanthropic and charitable activities, in order to see how the free movement of capital affects the ability of Member States to design the instruments by which they organize the delivery of services they consider are in the public interest.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

24. EU criminal law  

John R Spencer and András Csúri

This chapter examines what EU criminal law consists of; the reasons for its existence; and the mechanism by which it is created. It then describes the more important of its practical manifestations. It shows that Member States are torn between the practical necessity for certain problems in the area of criminal law to be dealt with at an EU level, and a deep-seated ideological resistance to this happening. A consequence of this is that the bulk of the EU instruments of which EU criminal law is composed are designed to help and encourage the criminal justice systems of the various Member States to work together, rather than to impose upon them uniform rules of criminal law or criminal procedure devised by EU law-making institutions.

Chapter

Cover EU Law Concentrate

3. Preliminary rulings  

Article 267 TFEU

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Article 267 TFEU gives the Court of Justice jurisdiction to deliver preliminary rulings on the validity and interpretation of EU law. The primary purpose of Article 267 is to ensure that EU law has the same meaning and effect in all the Member States. Where it considers a decision on a question of EU law is necessary to enable it to give judgment, any court may refer that question to the Court of Justice (the discretion to refer). Where a question of EU law is raised before a national court of last resort, that court must refer it to the Court of Justice (the obligation to refer).

Book

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

Justine Pila and Paul Torremans

European Intellectual Property Law offers a full account of the nature, context, and effect of European IP law. The amount and reach of European law- and decision-making in the field of intellectual property has grown exponentially since the 1960s, making it increasingly difficult to treat European IP regimes as mere adjuncts to domestic and international regimes. European Intellectual Property Law responds to this reality by presenting a clear and detailed account of each of the main European IP systems, including the areas of substantive IP law on which they are based. The result is a full account of the European intellectual property field, presented in the context of both the EU legal system and international IP law, including EU constitutional law, the law of the European Patent Convention 1973/2000, and private international law. By drawing selectively on examples from domestic IP regimes, the text also illustrates substantive differences between those regimes and demonstrates the impact of European law and decision-making on EU Member States. The result is a modern treatment of European IP law that goes beyond a discussion of the provisions of individual legal instruments to consider their wider context and effect.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

12. Limiting Powers  

EU Fundamental Rights

This chapter investigates each of the European Union's three bills of rights and the constitutional principles that govern them. It starts with the discovery of an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law. The chapter then moves to an analysis of the Union's ‘written’ bill of rights: the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which was adopted to codify already existing human rights in the Union legal order. It also considers the formal relationship between the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights. Finally, the chapter explores the relationship between EU fundamental rights and the Member States. Despite being primarily addressed to the Union, EU fundamental rights can, in some situations, also bind the Member States (and even their nationals). National courts may thus sometimes be obliged to review the legality of national law in the light of EU fundamental rights.

Chapter

Cover European Constitutional Law

12. Limiting Powers  

EU Fundamental Rights

This chapter investigates each of the European Union’s three bills of rights and the constitutional principles that govern them. It starts with the discovery of an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law. The chapter then moves to an analysis of the Union’s ‘written’ bill of rights: the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which was adopted to codify already existing human rights in the Union legal order. It also considers the formal relationship between the European Union and the European Convention on Human Rights. Finally, the chapter explores the relationship between EU fundamental rights and the Member States. Despite being primarily addressed to the Union, EU fundamental rights can, in some situations, also bind the Member States (and even their nationals). National courts may thus sometimes be obliged to review the legality of national law in the light of EU fundamental rights.