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Cover Business Law

7. Factors Affecting The Validity of a Contract  

This chapter discusses how the manner in which a contract is concluded can potentially affect its validity. Before discussing the terms and details of a contract, it is important to note that a contract may fail due to one or both parties not possessing the capacity to establish a contract. Some of the common reasons includes a mistake by one or both parties, a provision that has been misrepresented in the negotiations, or the use of undue influence or placing the other party under duress in the process of concluding the contract. Some of the reasons listed in this chapter may be common, but the emphasis here is to identify where problems may occur that could prevent the successful operation of the contract despite fulfilling the essential features discussed in the previous chapters.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

6. Establishing the Contract: Consideration, Intention to Create Legal Relations, and Certainty Of Terms  

This chapter is a continuation of the previous one, and further discusses the essential features of a legally binding, or valid, contract. It puts particular importance on the meaning of ‘consideration’, which is what makes a promise or agreement a ‘bargain’ and, therefore, enforceable. The courts are not bound to, and will not, consider a ‘bare promise’. Parties to a contract must intend it to be legally binding, and not just be social or domestic agreement, and such contracts must contain certain terms that identify the rights and obligations of both parties. Without an understanding of these crucial elements, agreements may be concluded but they will not create an enforceable contract. Also, although a contract is enforceable by those parties to it, this right can be extended to third parties if the contract has been made for the benefit of these parties.