1-6 of 6 Results  for:

  • Keyword: third parties x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Company Law

11. Directors’ duties II: conflicts of interest  

This chapter focuses on those duties relating to conflicts of interests, before moving on to look at transactions involving directors that require member approval. Section 175 of the CA 2006 provides that a director must avoid a situation in which they have, or can have, an interest that conflicts with that of the company. Section 176 provides that a director must not accept, from a third party, a benefit conferred by reason of their being a director or by doing anything as a director. Meanwhile, section 177 provides that a director who is interested in a proposed transaction or arrangement with the company must disclose the nature and extent of that interest to the other directors. Member approval is required if a director is interested in a ‘substantial property transaction’ involving the company or if a director is to enter into a loan, quasi-loan, or credit transaction with the company.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

12. The constitution of the company: dealing with outsiders  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter explores the legal aspects of transactions made with those outside the company (called outsiders or third parties), with emphasis on how they are determined to be legitimate and binding on the company. It also discusses the ultra vires doctrine and the three particular issues that make it a very tricky problem for the courts; the inclusion of the benefit of the company criterion to the ultra vires issue; the reform of ultra vires; and the application of the general principles of agency in determining whether the company is bound by a particular transaction. The chapter concludes by analysing reforms in the Companies Act 2006 concerning the authority of directors to bind the company or authorise others to do so.

Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

8. Remedies for Maladministration of the Company  

This chapter discusses the functioning of directors and their duties under common law and the Companies Act 2006. Topics covered include: the scope and nature of directors’ general duties; the duty to act within powers; the duty to promote the success of the company; the duty to exercise independent judgement; the duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence; the duty to avoid conflicts of interest; the duty not to accept benefits from third parties; the duty to declare an interest in a proposed or existing transaction or arrangement; remedies for breach of general duties; relief from liability; ratification of acts of directors; relief from liability granted by the court; contracting out of liability; statutory rules requiring special notice or members’ approval for certain transactions; and secondary liability (liability of third parties associated with directors’ wrongs).

Chapter

Cover Company Law

10. Derivative claims  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines derivative action as a means of safeguarding minority shareholders against abuses of power and its implications for the principle of majority rule. It begins by analysing the rule in Foss v Harbottle (1843), which translates the doctrine of separate legal personality, the statutory contract, the ‘internal management principle’, and the principle of majority rule into a rule of procedure governing locus standi (that is, who has standing to sue), as well as the exceptions to that rule. It then considers various types of shareholder actions, including personal claims, representative actions (group litigation), and derivative claims. It also discusses derivative claims under the Companies Act 2006, with emphasis on the two-stage process of the application for permission to continue a derivative claim. The chapter concludes by assessing bars to a derivative action, together with liability insurance and qualifying third party indemnity provisions.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

12. Duty to avoid a conflict of interest  

This chapter discusses the director’s duty to avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a personal interest conflicting, or which possibly may conflict, with the interests of those whom he is bound to protect (the no-conflict rule); and the equally inflexible rule that, without consent, a person in a fiduciary position is not entitled to profit from that position (the no-profit rule or, more accurately no secret profit rule). These key obligations are discussed in detail, exploring the extent of the strict duty to avoid a conflict and the judicial attitude to breaches of duty. The need for disclosure and authorisation is discussed. Benefits from third parties and conflicts from proposed transactions with the company are also addressed.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

9. Duty to act within constitution and powers  

The Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) requires directors: to act in accordance with the constitution (defined s 257) and to exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferred. This chapter focuses on s 171. The discussion covers the constitutional division of power within a company, types of authority, statutory protection of third parties, and exercise of a power for an improper purpose. Much of the discussion is of the important agency rules which govern directors’ authority, considering in particular the extent to which third parties can rely on the apparent or ostensible authority of an individual director or directors. The circumstances in which third parties are put on inquiry are considered. The statutory protection afforded to third parties by CA 2006, s 40 is also examined. The proper purpose doctrine is an important constraint on abuse of power by directors and the application of the doctrine is addressed in detail.