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Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

7. Victimology  

Angus Nurse

This chapter assesses victimology, which has become an important sub-discipline within criminology. Victimology includes the study of victimisation as well as the challenges of legal and institutional definitions of the ‘victim’. Discussions include debates concerning victims’ rights and activism and how victimhood has come to be understood and responded to. The chapter then considers both narrow and wider ideas of victimisation, and examines whether and how criminal justice processes and public policy have developed in response to victims’ needs. While victims are really the people who the criminal investigation and trial are meant to serve, they are often not part of the process. The chapter also looks at a key part of victimology, which is the use of statistical evidence on the levels of victimisation.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

8. Hate crime  

Angus Nurse and Mark Walters

This chapter addresses hate crimes, which are complex, as these offences can be linked to both personal gain or even profit, as well as concepts such as ‘difference’ and ‘othering’. This area of criminology came about primarily because the civil rights movements in the US and the UK raised the profile of racist and (later) homophobic violence so that they became important political and social issues. The chapter looks at a range of different types of hate crime, including offences based on prejudice towards victims because of their disability, race or ethnicity, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation, and gender identity. It also identifies some of the factors that can affect these offences in ways that are not immediately obvious. These elements include the influence politicians can have, especially when using language that excludes minority groups and portrays them as a threat to the public or as somehow being ‘Other’ (different and arguably not to be trusted).

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

23. Criminal justice principles  

This chapter describes the key principles of the criminal justice system. These key principles behind the abstract aims of criminal justice include the rule of law, adversarial justice, and restorative justice. The chapter particularly focuses on the rule of law doctrine to illustrate its status as the ultimate authority for democratic systems of justice around the world, but it also reflects on three of its supplementary concepts: an independent judiciary, due process, and human rights. Meanwhile, the traditional adversarial contest in a courtroom between two opposing sides means such hearings can lack impartiality as the role of the judge is limited to ensuring that the rules are followed. The restorative justice principle offers a different dimension, one that prioritises repairing the harms suffered by the injured parties.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

2. Towards a framework for evaluating the criminal process  

This chapter advances a theoretical framework for evaluating criminal procedure, while keeping in mind the links between the different parts and aspects of the criminal justice system. A rights-based theory of the criminal process should have the twin goals of regulating the procedures for bringing suspected offenders to trial to produce accurate determinations, and ensuring that fundamental rights are protected in those processes. This approach should be adopted in England and Wales—both on principle and because it is implicit in international documents such as the European Convention on Human Rights that still plays a fundamental role in English law. Separate objectives for dispositive decisions are also proposed, including the decision to divert a person from the criminal process without trial.

Chapter

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36. Criminology, punishment, and the state in a globalized society  

Katja Franko

Questions of criminal law and criminal justice are increasingly becoming international, overcoming the confines of traditional jurisdictional constraints. This chapter traces these developments in order to examine what relevance criminology has had and may hold for understanding contemporary global issues. It examines, among other things, the impact of global interconnectedness on the nature of state sovereignty, particularly in light of challenges such as international terrorism, irregular migration, and transnational organized crime. By doing so, the chapter does not simply chart a demise of the state, as is sometimes assumed within studies of globalization. Instead, it proposes a more subtle, analytical, and imaginary disconnection between crime, penality, and the nation state. Finally, the chapter addresses the rise of international forms of justice, particularly those articulated through human rights regimes, as well as the emerging challenges to them.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

9. Mental health, mental disabilities, and crime  

Ailbhe O’Loughlin and Jill Peay

What is the nature of the relationship between mental disability and crime? This chapter examines its nature, scope, direction, and implications for the study of criminology. Its early sections critically assess issues of definition, causation, and of the success of treatment interventions. Its latter part reviews developments in policy and the emerging blurring of risk-oriented and therapeutic objectives. It concludes by urging a more sophisticated and less discriminatory approach to the field, which does not focus on diagnoses but rather on a holistic understanding of the relationship between people and crime.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

15. Criminology, punishment, and the state in a globalized society  

Katja Franko

Questions of criminal law and criminal justice are increasingly becoming international, overcoming the confines of traditional jurisdictional constraints. This chapter traces these developments in order to examine what relevance criminology has had and may hold for understanding contemporary global issues. It examines, among other things, the impact of global interconnectedness on the nature of state sovereignty, particularly in light of challenges such as international terrorism, irregular migration, and transnational organized crime. By doing so, the chapter does not simply chart a demise of the state, as is sometimes assumed within studies of globalization. Instead, it proposes a more subtle, analytical and imaginary disconnection between crime, penality, and the nation state. Finally, the chapter addresses the rise of international forms of justice, particularly those articulated through human rights regimes, as well as the emerging challenges to them.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

28. Mental health, mental disabilities, and crime  

Jill Peay

What is the nature of the relationship between mental disability and crime? This chapter examines its nature, scope, direction, and implications for the study of criminology. Its early sections critically assess issues of definition, causation and of the success of treatment interventions. Its latter part reviews developments in policy and the emerging blurring of risk-oriented and therapeutic objectives. It concludes by urging a more sophisticated and less discriminatory approach to the field, which does not focus on diagnoses but rather on a holistic understanding of the relationship between people and crime.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

41. Youth justice  

Lesley McAra

This chapter explores the founding principles, operational functioning and impact of the institutions which have evolved across the four nations in the United Kingdom to deal with children and young people who come into conflict with the law. It takes as its principal empirical focus the shifting patterns of control that have emerged over the past twenty years—a period characterized by a persistent disjuncture between normative claims about youth justice, evolving policy discourse, and the impact of youth justice practices on the lives of young people. The chapter concludes by arguing that, unless there is better alignment between these dimensions, justice for children and young people cannot and will never be delivered.

Chapter

Cover The Criminal Process

9. Pre-trial issues: disclosure and abuse of process  

This chapter reviews various procedural mechanisms to ensure that the eventual trial runs smoothly and fairly. In terms of facilitating the smooth running of the trial, it concentrates on ways of screening cases and clarifying some of the issues prior to trial. The disclosure of evidence is a fraught matter in this regard, with an impact on fairness as well as efficiency. In terms of ensuring that the defendant is not subjected to an unfair trial, it examines some question that arise under the broad heading of abuse of process, concentrating on issues of delay and the entrapment doctrine.