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Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

18. Trespass to land and nuisance  

This chapter examines torts of trespass to land and nuisance. Trespass to land is concerned with direct harm, and the tort’s primary importance is the protection of property rights. Harm in this context does not necessarily mean actual damage to the land concerned. The harm lies in the fact that land owned by one party has been unjustifiably interfered with by another. Private nuisance deals with indirect and unreasonable interferences to land, including what might be called consequential interferences resulting from a direct action. Private nuisance regulates relationships and conflicts between neighbours, defining their mutual rights and obligations with respect to land use. Many aspects of the law of nuisance, including determining whether an injunction or damages is the appropriate remedy, were clarified by the Supreme Court in Coventry v Lawrence [2014].

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

1. General Introduction  

This chapter first discusses the historical development of tort law, covering the origins of tort law; the forms of action; the development of fault-based liability; eighteenth-century developments; the classification of obligations; and the modern pre-eminence of negligence. It then turns to theories of tort, covering the aims of the law of tort and doctrinal classifications. Finally, the chapter considers modern influences on tort law, covering the influence of insurance; the influence of human rights; and concerns about ‘compensation culture’.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

14. Privacy  

The right of privacy under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into English law by the Human Rights Act 1998, but English law as yet recognises no tort of invasion of privacy as such. Admittedly, a number of specific torts protect particular aspects of privacy, but this protection may be regarded as haphazard, incidental, and incomplete. Recent decisions, however, have seen substantial developments in the protection given to particular privacy interests, above all by adapting the law of breach of confidence to provide a remedy against the unauthorised disclosure of personal information. These issues are discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

3. Negligence—Introduction  

This chapter introduces the tort of negligence. It first discusses the formulation of a general duty of care, highlighting the case of Donoghue v Stevenson, which established the pre-eminent role of the ‘duty of care’ concept in the tort of negligence. The chapter then turns to the role of the duty of care concept in modern negligence law, before considering the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 on the law of negligence.

Book

Cover Tort Law Directions
Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This book covers all the core areas of tort law, combining an engaging approach with plenty of learning features. It provides a detailed introduction to the key principles of tort law, and illustrates the points of law through discussions of important court cases. Key cases are discussed to illustrate the main principles of tort law; they help to bring the subject to life, allowing students to see how the law operates in practice. This new edition of the text includes increased focus on the influence of human rights on tort law. It is fully updated with recent case law highlighting how quickly tort law is developing particularly.

Book

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law
Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. An Introduction to Tort Law offers an exposition to the rapidly developing law of tort in Britain. In its second edition, it provides an up-to-date overview of the current state of tort law now. Many of the areas subjected to analysis and discussion are highly topical, such as the invasion of the privacy of celebrities, and liability for medical mishaps and industrial diseases. On these and many other subjects of relevance in modern society, this title's comments act as a springboard for further study and reflection, as well as presenting an analysis, enlivened by a critical commentary, of the present situation and how we reached it. The second edition includes recent developments in tort law, the most significant of which is the incorporation into English law of the European Convention on Human Rights. This has not only affected the outcome in a number of cases, but also brought about changes in our vocabulary, interpretation of enactments, and treatment of precedent, which are rather less easily documented.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

16. Invasion of privacy  

This chapter examines the nascent ‘tort’ of invasion of privacy. It first considers why no free-standing tort of invasion of privacy exists, before looking at breach of confidence—a legal concept straddling tort and equity and concerned with ‘secrets’ and judicially adapted to protect privacy by developing the new tort of misuse of private information. The chapter then asks whether developments in the law protecting privacy—particularly in the wake of the Human Rights Act 1998—threaten freedom of expression and therefore the general public’s ‘right’ to information, particularly about celebrities, including royalty and politicians.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction  

This introductory chapter begins with a definition of tort law and the interests that tort law protects. To say that the law of tort protects an individual’s rights or interests does not mean that a claimant will succeed simply by showing that the defendant harmed them or infringed their rights. Tort law lays down a set of rules stating when exactly a harm or infringement of one’s interest will give rise to legal liability. The chapter discusses the disparate functions of tort law and illustrates them through the case of Woodroffe-Hedley v Cuthbertson [1997]. The chapter then explains the significance of the Human Rights Act 1998 for tort law.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

16. Trespass to land and nuisance  

This chapter considers two ‘land torts’: trespass to land and private nuisance. Trespass to land protects a person in possession of land against direct invasion of his property. The right to sue includes not only those with a proprietorial interest in the land, such as owners and tenants, but also those who have exclusive occupation such as squatters. The fact that any invasion of land, however minute and whether it causes damage or not, is a trespass, indicates that the primary function of this tort is to protect rights in property, rather than simply to provide compensation. The chapter continues by distinguishing between public and private nuisance. It then discusses the interests protected in private nuisance; the standard of reasonable user; the person(s) liable for nuisance; remoteness of damage; statutory authority and planning permission; and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 on nuisance claims.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

11. Conversion  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the tort of conversion. Conversion is best regarded as the tort which protects the owner of goods not against their being damaged (negligence covers that) but against their being dealt with or detained against his will. It is concerned with loss of goods rather than damage to them. The chapter discusses what goods can be converted; what entitlements the claimant in conversion must show; liability in conversion; remedies, such as the return of the goods or damages or both; and length of protection provided to the legal owner of goods.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] AC 655  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] AC 655. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] AC 655  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Hunter v Canary Wharf Ltd [1997] AC 655. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

15. Privacy  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on the emergence of a new action to protect privacy under the Human Rights Act 1998, with particular reference to unjustified publication of private information. It begins by considering whether privacy is a protected interest at common law and whether privacy must be recognized and given protection through the law of tort. It then examines the tools which have been used in the partial absorption of privacy as a protected interest in common law, citing the provisions of the Human Rights Act 1998 and Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The controversies surrounding disclosure of private information and the power of injunctions are also considered, along with the issue of intrusion as an invasion of privacy.

Book

Cover Tort Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Having begun with a consideration of the meaning of tort and the context of the ‘tort system’, Tort Law Concentrate covers the key elements of negligence: duty of care, breach of duty, and causation. Economic loss and psychiatric injury are specifically discussed. The book also explains the intentional torts: trespass to the person and to land as well as the tort in Wilkinson v Downton are covered, as is product liability. The family of nuisance torts, with their importance for environmental control are included, as is the key issue of remedies. This new edition includes coverage of recent case law, such as Barclays Bank plc v Various Claimants (2020) and Lachaux v Independent Print (2019). This edition has been fully updated in light of developments in the law, including the continuing impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

14. Invasion of privacy  

This chapter discusses different aspects of privacy. It shows that there is no general common law right to protection from invasion of privacy (the so-called ‘right to be let alone’), but that limitation has been largely subverted by the new law in the second section on the protection of personal information and the reasonable expectation of privacy that has developed significantly in recent years. This shows the potential power of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention on Human Rights, and is the subject of considerable controversy, especially in relation to the protection of celebrity privacy. The final section considers remedies in privacy cases.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

10. Nuisance  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the tort of nuisance, which is concerned exclusively with land. Nuisance embraces all the multifarious rights and interests appertaining to land — that extremely distinctive form of property whose characteristics include uniqueness, durability, fixity, contiguity, visibility, and short supply. Some such rights are natural, others must be acquired; some are absolute, others qualified; some depend on physical possession, others, such as easements, do not. One of these rights is the right to enjoy one's land. The chapter discusses how the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) can affect the landowner or occupier; cases where a defendant is held liable for failing to protect his neighbour; the nature of the occupier's duty; disamenity as the characteristic of nuisance law; and whether a landlord is liable for a nuisance committed by a tenant.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

2. Some Advice for the Novice Tort Lawyer  

This chapter discusses issues that readers must bear in mind when encountering criticism of individual rules, decisions, and academic opinions in the remainder of the book. These are: how judicial mentality and outlook affects decision-making; academic interests and practitioners’ concerns; ivory tower neatness v. the untidiness of the real world; tort’s struggle to solve modern problems with old tools; need to reform tort law; whether liability rules are restricted because the damages rules have been left unreformed or because the relationship between liability and damages has been neglected; that tort law is, in practice, often inaccessible to the ordinary victim; and that human rights law is set to influence tort law, but this influence is likely to be gradual and indirect.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

18. Trespass to land and nuisance  

This chapter examines torts of trespass to land and nuisance. Trespass to land is concerned with direct harm, and the tort’s primary importance is the protection of property rights. Harm in this context does not necessarily mean actual damage to the land concerned. The harm lies in the fact that land owned by one party has been unjustifiably interfered with by another. Private nuisance deals with indirect and unreasonable interferences to land, including what might be called consequential interferences resulting from a direct action. Private nuisance regulates relationships and conflicts between neighbours, defining their mutual rights and obligations with respect to land use. Many aspects of the law of nuisance, including determining whether an injunction or damages is the appropriate remedy, were clarified by the Supreme Court in Coventry v Lawrence [2014].

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

1. Introduction: The Shape of Tort Law Today  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the reader to tort law, with emphasis on its principles of liability and the approach taken to the interaction between parties. It first maps the various types of torts, including torts of strict liability and torts requiring intention, and the nature of the ‘wrongs’ with which they are concerned, in terms of protected interests, relevant ‘conduct’, and whether the tort requires ‘actual’ or ‘material’ damage. The chapter concludes by discussing two current challenges to the law of tort: ‘compensation culture’ and the costs of tort, and the influence of the Human Rights Act 1998.