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4. Europe and the English legal system  

This chapter examines the two principal European sources of law (namely EU Law and the European Convention on Human Rights) and their effect upon the UK’s legal system. It notes the institutions that form the EU and the differing forms of EU law. The effects of EU membership upon parliamentary sovereignty are discussed, noting that EU law has taken precedence over domestic law since 1973, so an Act of Parliament may be suspended by the courts if it fails to comply with EU law. The chapter then discusses the European Convention on Human Rights and the rights protected under it. Finally, the chapter discusses the domestic enforcement of the Convention by discussing in detail the provisions of the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

8. Employment II: termination—wrongful dismissal, unfair dismissal, and redundancy  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on the termination of the employment contract. Employees have a statutory right not to be unfairly dismissed and the Employment Rights Act (ERA) 1996 identifies the criteria to be satisfied in order for the employee to gain protection. The common law protects against wrongful dismissal and provides tests and guidance for situations involving a breach of an employment contract. The chapter also considers redundancy situations. As this is governed by statute, it is necessary to appreciate the obligations imposed on the employer to adopt fair procedures.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

19. Intellectual Property Law  

This chapter considers the major intellectual property rights in the UK and the protection the law gives to these rights. It explains the meaning of copyright, patents, trade marks, and design rights, and considers the types of works that might be protected by them. It explains whether the rights need to be registered and if so the process of registration. It examines the time limits for the protection of the various rights and the remedies available for infringement of them. It also considers the protection the law gives to intellectual property via the tort of passing off. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the possibilities of protecting intellectual property rights outside the UK.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

3. Sources of English Law  

This chapter discusses the sources of English law, legislation, custom, case law, and EU law. It includes detail of how an Act of Parliament is created, an explanation of delegated legislation, and how legislation is interpreted by the courts. In considering case law, the importance of judicial precedent and how the system of precedence functions is fully explained. The chapter also discusses the major institutions of the EU including the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The sources of EU law, treaties, regulations, directives, and decisions are outlined. The chapter outlines the 2016 referendum and the position of EU law in the UK during the negotiation period for the UK’s exit from the EU and the likely impact of the UK’s exit from the EU. Detail is given of the rights protected under the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998.

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Cover Business Law

24. Intellectual Property and Data Protection  

The final chapter in the book examines matters relating to the intellectual property created and/or owned by a business and their responsibilities for the data they access and/or produce. Given the value of the outputs from the intellectual creativity of persons (software programs, books, music recordings etc.), this chapter outlines the rights available to protect them and the consequences for infringement. It first identifies the law surrounding creative ideas and work (copyright) before a product’s appearance (design rights) is considered. The chapter continues by assessing the protection of a brand name and image (trademarks) and finishes the substantive issues through examination of inventive ideas and works (patents). Confusion of the public through the unlawful use of an existing business’ name or product can result in the tortious liability of ‘passing-off’. Intellectual property is produced by employees and the consequences of employment status for the rights to exploit the property must be effectively managed. The chapter concludes with an assessment of developments in data protection—the GDPR, Data Protection Act, and the tactics available to businesses to avoid transgression of the law.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

6. The Terms of a Contract  

This chapter discusses the terms of a contract. The terms are the contents of the contract. They also state what the parties’ legal duties and obligations are to each other. Terms may be written, oral, or even implied into a contract. This chapter discusses the difference between a term of a contract and a representation and the difference between express and implied terms. It considers the types of contractual terms, conditions, warranties, and innominate terms, and the distinction between them. The nature of exemption clauses and the methods used by the courts to restrict the use of such clauses and the effects on exemption clauses of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and Consumer Rights Act 2015 are examined. The chapter concludes with a discussion of restraint of trade clauses commonly found in contracts of employment, contracts for the sale of businesses, and solus agreements

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

1. The English legal system  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the English legal system. It provides an overview of the courts in the civil and criminal divisions, and their hierarchy. It discusses the source of law, delegated legislation, the impact of membership in the EU and the Human Rights Act 1998, and alternative forms of dispute resolution (ADR). The implications of ADR are increasingly important in civil disputes and essential between businesses where traditional court action can destroy commercial relationships.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

4. Contract III: contractual terms and statutory protection  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses contractual terms and statutory protection. Parties to a contract may express terms and/or terms may be implied. The sources and effects of implied terms are essential to the rights of the parties and obligations imposed on them. Terms can be implied through the courts, through customs, and from statute. Terms are identified as conditions, warranties, or innominate and this distinction is relevant when identifying remedies for breach. Statutes regulate the rights and obligations applicable to consumers and traders. These include the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the substantial changes in contracts between consumers and traders introduced through the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

13. An introduction to the law of torts  

This chapter provides an introduction to the law of torts. It explains that the objectives of tort law are to compensate those who suffer harm, to deter conduct that causes harm, and to protect legitimate interests. Tort law, along with contract law, forms the backbone of Britain’s civil justice system and is of immense importance to the business community because it represents a significant source of legal exposure for businesses. The chapter provides an introduction to the concept of the duty of care, as well as discussing who can sue and be sued in the event of a breach of duty. Finally, the chapter discusses how the law of torts has been affected by the European Convention on Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

9. Unfair terms  

This chapter examines unfair terms and exclusion clauses in a contract. It explains that exclusion and limitation clauses can be used by the parties to exclude or limit their liability and that they are regulated by statute and common law. It highlights the fact that an exclusion clause can only be effective if it is incorporated into a contract and if it was brought to the other party’s attention prior to the contract being formed. This chapter also discusses the relevant provisions of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015, and ongoing efforts to clarify the law in this area.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

2. The Court System and Alternative Dispute Resolution  

This chapter discusses the English court system, civil disputes, and alternative dispute resolution. The courts in England and Wales form a hierarchy. At the lowest level are the Magistrates’ Courts and the County Courts, then the Crown Court and High Court, then the Court of Appeal, and finally the Supreme Court. The chapter considers the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in interpreting EU law within Member States. It explains the position of the European Court of Human Rights, which deals with allegations of state breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights. Civil disputes arise in every area of business. An explanation of the civil procedure rules from commencing a claim to enforcement of a court judgment is provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of dispute resolution including arbitration, mediation, and conciliation.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

26. Employment rights, and health and safety  

This chapter examines the employment rights provided by law to employees and workers. It explains that aside from the rights contained in the employment contract, the law provides employees with a number of free-standing rights. These include the right to a national minimum wage, rules relating to the transfer of undertakings, and the numerous family-related rights (for example, maternity and paternity leave/pay, adoption leave/pay, and shared parental leave/pay. This chapter also discusses the mandate for employers to protect the health and safety of their employees and the key provisions of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the Working Time Regulations 1998.

Book

Cover Business Law

James Marson and Katy Ferris

Business Law provides an introduction to the subject. Packed with up-to-date and relevant examples, it demonstrates the real applicability of the law to the business world. The book is split into eight parts. After an introduction about studying the law, Part 2 covers the English legal system, the constitution, EU law, and human rights. This comprises important issues including statutory interpretation and the legislative process, and court structures. Part 3 considers contractual obligations. Here terms such as, contractual capacity, mistake, misrepresentation, duress, contractual terms, regulations, and remedies for breach are discussed. Part 4 discusses tortious liability and describes issues of negligence, nuisance, economic loss, psychiatric injury, and statutory duties. Part 5 examines company law, including trading structures, maintenance of finance and capital, and corporate administration and management. Part 6 explores the employment relationship, the nature of which will determine many important factors for both the individual and the employer. It includes discussions on the Contract of Employment, statutory regulation of dismissals, equality in employment relationships, and Statutory and Common Law Regulation of the Conditions of Employment. Part 6 then discusses agency law and the duties and responsibilities that exist for both principal and agent. Finally, intellectual property and data protection issues are considered in Part 8.