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Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

16. Loan Sales and Securitization  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter examines one context in which contracts and debts are transferred — as banks and bank subsidiaries ‘sell’ their own assets, i.e. their loans, mortgages, credit card receivables, and so on. Commercially speaking, this divides into loan sales and securitization. Among the various motivations for these transactions are to reduce risk, to meet capital requirements, to allow for new lending, and to take advantage of financial and commercial opportunities. Securitization was abused, with many risky loans repackaged and sold as highly rated securities. Its contribution to the global financial crisis in 2008 made it unpopular. However, it remains significant as a financing technique. Before examining loan sales and securitization, the chapter lays out the different legal techniques for transferring debts and contractual rights.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

2. Basic concepts of personal property  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter explores some basic concepts of personal property and personal property law. It first explains the distinction between personal and real property before discussing the nature of personal property and analysing the characteristics and significance of property rights. There is then detailed consideration of ownership and possession of chattels, the acquisition and transfer of legal and equitable ownership, and attornment. This is followed by an account of the acquisition and transfer of legal and equitable ownership in choses in action and intangibles. The chapter concludes with an examination of the remedies for recovery of, and interference with, personal property and remedies available for protection of equitable property, including claims to trust assets and claims for breach of trust.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

7. Relations between principal and agent  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the rights and obligations of the principal and the agent between themselves, whether arising from a contract between them or from the fiduciary nature of their relationship. However, those rights and obligations may also derive from other sources, for example tort, statute, or the law of restitution. There is detailed consideration of the duties of the agent, such as the duty of care and skill and fiduciary duties, as well as the rights relating to remuneration, reimbursement and indemnity, and lien. The chapter also discusses the ways by which agency may be terminated.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

14. Delivery and payment  

This chapter considers the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and the duty of the buyer to accept the goods and to pay the price. Payment and delivery are concurrent conditions in a contract of sale. This means that the seller must be ready and willing to deliver the goods, and the buyer must be ready and willing to pay for them in accordance with the terms of the contract. The parties to the contract can make whatever agreement they want in respect of delivery and payment and, in practice, will often do so in relation to the time, place, and manner of the delivery and the payment. Where the parties have not agreed on these matters, the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) lays down certain rules, which are discussed in detail in the chapter. Similar rules apply to consumer sales under the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

15. Statutory implied terms and statutory rights  

This chapter discusses the common law rule of caveat emptor, which today has been largely eroded by the original Sale of Goods Act 1893 (SGA 1893) that introduced the statutory implied terms of quality and fitness for purpose. It is shown here that the principle of caveat emptor is still alive and well in relation to purely private sales because the terms implied by the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) in relation to the quality and fitness for purpose of the goods only apply to sales made in the course of a business. Sale of goods contracts are still, therefore, governed by the principle of caveat emptor to some extent, although this is subject to other enactments. This chapter also discusses the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA 2015) which came into force on 1 October 2015.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

2. Statutory implied terms  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the significance of the terms implied into sale of goods contracts under the Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the statutory rights that are implied in a contract between trader and consumer by virtue of the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the seller’s right to sell the goods, the goods being free from encumbrances and the buyer enjoying quiet possession of them, sales by sample, and the description and quality of the goods, as well as their fitness for purpose. Digital content is also discussed in relation to consumer transactions. The chapter also considers the terms implied into other kinds of contract by different statutes, including the terms implied by the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982.