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Chapter

Cover Tort Law

12. Product liability  

This chapter discusses the ways in which liability for defective products is regulated in tort law and which is primarily regulated by statute. The chapter considers manufacturers’ liability in negligence and the problems claimants may encounter when trying to sue. This leads to a later development relating to product liability—the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 1987—enacted to ensure better protection of consumers from defective goods by making producers strictly liable for harms caused by the products they market. However, a claimant may still claim in negligence due to the statutory limitations in relation to certain types of claim.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

15. Intentional interferences with the person  

This chapter examines intentional interferences with the person, including the torts comprising trespass to the person—battery, assault and false imprisonment—the tort in Wilkinson v Downton [1897], and the statutory tort of harassment. The trespass to the person torts seek to protect an individual against an infringement of their personal or bodily integrity, that is, against the infliction, or fearing the infliction, of unlawful force (battery and assault) and the unlawful restriction of a person’s freedom of movement (false imprisonment). The three trespass to the person torts have the same characteristics: the defendant must have intended both the conduct itself and consequences of their action; the defendant’s action must cause direct and immediate harm; and they are actionable per se, that is, without proof of loss. The chapter also considers the tort in Wilkinson v Downton, which provides a remedy for physical and psychiatric harm deliberately caused by a false statement, and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, which imposes both civil and criminal liability for harassing conduct.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

13. Nuisance  

Private nuisance is defined as any substantial and unreasonable interference with the claimant’s land, or with his rights to peaceful enjoyment of that land and any right that exists in connection with it. It need not result from ‘direct’ or ‘intentional’ interference; it is sufficient that the defendant have ‘adopted or continued’ a state of affairs that constitutes an unreasonable interference. This chapter discusses the basis of liability in private nuisance; the concept of unreasonable interference and the difference between this concept and the notion of ‘reasonableness’ in negligence; who can sue and who can be sued; defences; and remedies. It also discusses, in outline, public nuisance; the relationship between nuisance and other forms of liability; and nuisance and protection of the environment.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

20. Product Liability  

This chapter begins by tracing the evolution of product liability law in England and America. It then discusses the causes of action and components of liability. Liability evolved from an initial position in which the law of negligence played a minor role in compensating victims of dangerously defective products, thanks largely to the ‘privity of contract fallacy’. Donoghue v. Stevenson put an end to this and ushered in the modern, all-embracing duty of care as far as physical injury and property damage are concerned. With the adoption of Directive 85/374/EEC and its subsequent implementation in the form of the Consumer Protection Act 1987, a form of strict or ‘stricter’ liability based on the American model was incorporated into English law.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

11. Conversion  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the tort of conversion. Conversion is best regarded as the tort which protects the owner of goods not against their being damaged (negligence covers that) but against their being dealt with or detained against his will. It is concerned with loss of goods rather than damage to them. The chapter discusses what goods can be converted; what entitlements the claimant in conversion must show; liability in conversion; remedies, such as the return of the goods or damages or both; and length of protection provided to the legal owner of goods.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

12. Product liability  

This chapter discusses the ways in which liability for defective products is regulated in tort law and which is primarily regulated by statute. The chapter considers manufacturers’ liability in negligence and the problems claimants may encounter when trying to sue. This leads to a later development relating to product liability—the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 1987—enacted to ensure better protection of consumers from defective goods by making producers strictly liable for harms caused by the products they market. However, a claimant may still claim in negligence due to the statutory limitations in relation to certain types of claim.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

16. Product liability  

This chapter examines the provisions of tort law concerning product liability. It explains that a defendant can be held liable for a defective product that causes personal injuries or causes damage to property and that the liability for failure to take care in the manufacture of a product causing personal injury was established in the case of Donoghue v Stevenson. The chapter discusses the limitations of the tort of negligence and suggests that, in the majority of cases, claimants should bring their actions for defective products under the Consumer Protection Act 1987 because it does not require proof of fault.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

11. Product liability  

This chapter deals with damage caused by defective products. It considers two separate legal regimes. The first is the ordinary law of negligence, and the second is the system of strict liability introduced by the Consumer Protection Act 1987, as required by a European Directive (85/374/EEC). The latter is limited to personal injuries and to damage to private property, so there are still many cases where a claimant has to rely on negligence. Also, the Act applies only to certain kinds of defendants (‘producers’), and a claimant will need to use negligence if, for example, he is injured by a defectively repaired product. One important point is that both systems apply only to damage to goods other than the defective product and not to damage which the defective product causes to itself: that is a matter solely for the law of contract.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

6. Product Liability  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. The chapter discusses the law on product liability. It covers key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plan, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the general principles of negligence; the meaning of strict liability; and the Consumer Protection Act 1987 and its relationship with the common law regarding consumer protection.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

15. Intentional interferences with the person  

This chapter examines intentional interferences with the person, including the torts comprising trespass to the person—battery, assault and false imprisonment—the tort in Wilkinson v Downton [1897] and the statutory tort of harassment. The trespass to the person torts seek to protect an individual against an infringement of their personal or bodily integrity, that is, against the infliction, or fearing the infliction, of unlawful force (battery and assault) and the unlawful restriction of a person’s freedom of movement (false imprisonment). The three trespass to the person torts have the same characteristics: the defendant must have intended both the conduct itself and consequences of their action; the defendant’s action must cause direct and immediate harm; and they are actionable per se, that is, without proof of loss. The chapter also considers the tort in Wilkinson v Downton, which provides a remedy for physical and psychiatric harm deliberately caused by a false statement, and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997, which imposes both civil and criminal liability for harassing conduct.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

10. Trespass to the person and related torts  

This chapter examines the protection afforded by tort law against trespass to the person and infringements of personal interests. It discusses the elements of the torts of battery, assault, and false imprisonment, which all derive from medieval tort law and are characterised by the need for direct interference (but there is no need to prove damage because the torts are actionable per se). Compensation in these cases is for damage suffered and/or the interference with what are considered to be important dignitary interests. The chapter considers also the newer tort of intentional infliction of physical harm and the provisions of the Protection from Harassment Act of 1997.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Directions

10. Product liability  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Manufacturers and producers are liable for personal injury or damage to property caused by a defective product. The claimant will not only recover in contract for personal injury and property damage caused by the defective product, but he will also be compensated for the cost of replacing the product itself. The Consumer Protection Act 1987 involves a strict liability regime for defective products on a variety of potential defendants. This chapter discusses the limitations of the tort system in providing compensation to a victim of harm caused by a defective product, and analyses the scope and limitations of the Consumer Protection Act 1987.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

14. Invasion of privacy  

This chapter discusses different aspects of privacy. It shows that there is no general common law right to protection from invasion of privacy (the so-called ‘right to be let alone’), but that limitation has been largely subverted by the new law in the second section on the protection of personal information and the reasonable expectation of privacy that has developed significantly in recent years. This shows the potential power of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention on Human Rights, and is the subject of considerable controversy, especially in relation to the protection of celebrity privacy. The final section considers remedies in privacy cases.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

8. Intentional Torts  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses intentional torts. It covers key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plans, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: trespass to the person: assault, battery, false imprisonment, the rule in Wilkinson v Downton and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997; trespass to land; trespass to goods and the tort of conversion; and defences to intentional torts: necessity, lawful arrest, consent, and self-defence.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Concentrate

10. Product liability  

This chapter discusses the law on product liability. Common law product liability is based upon the law of negligence. Beginning with the narrow ratio in Donoghue v Stevenson (1932), it further developed the concept of intermediate examination in Grant v Australian Knitting Mills (1936). The relevant statute is the Consumer Protection Act 1987 (CPA 1987), passed in response to a European Union Directive. This introduces strict liability, when a defective product causes damage. The CPA 19876 establishes a hierarchy of possible defendants beginning with the producer. Defences under the CPA 1987 include the ‘development risks’ defence to protect scientific and technical innovation. If damage relates to quality or value, the only remedy will be in contract.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Concentrate

11. Intentional torts  

This chapter discusses both common law and statute in relation to the torts of trespass to the person: battery, assault, and false imprisonment. These torts have three common characteristics: they are the result of intentional actions, take the form of direct harm, and are actionable per se, that is, without proof of damage. An additional intentional tort is derived from Wilkinson v Downton (1897), the wilful infliction of physical harm upon the claimant by indirect means. This category of intentional harm is also augmented by the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. Defences to the intentional torts are also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

10. Defamation and Privacy  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. To answer questions on defamation, students need to understand the following: categories of defamation: libel and slander; what constitutes a defamatory statement: innuendo; defences to defamation: absolute privilege and qualified privilege; the Defamation Act 2013; and offer of amends, Defamation Act 1996 sections 2–4. To answer questions on privacy, students need to understand the following: the nature of privacy; the overlap between the torts of misuse of private information, and other causes of action; trespass; negligence; the Human Rights Act 1998; and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997.