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Chapter

Cover Family Law

12. Child Protection: Care, Supervision, and Adoption  

This chapter looks at what happens in issues of child protection when compulsory intervention in the form of care or supervision applications is needed. It considers the legal tests, the processes, and the practicalities involved in proceedings and decisions about what should happen after intervention. For intervention to take place, the local authority must satisfy the court that the child in question is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm attributable to their care or to them being beyond parental control. As far as the court is concerned, the best interests of the child are paramount. The court has to consider all realistic options for the child's future.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

11. Child Protection: State Support for Children  

This chapter considers how the Children Act 1989 provided a legal framework within which the state can support children to remain with their families through difficult situations and intervene to protect them when they face unacceptable risks. The chapter starts by giving a brief history of child protection law. The chapter then looks at the inherent tension in protecting children while aspiring to support their life with their families, before considering local authorities' powers and duties, resources, and the ever-increasing numbers of children who are involved with social services, whether as c hildren in need, looked after children, or as subjects of child protection investigations or applications.

Book

Cover Family Law

Joanna Miles, Rob George, and Sonia Harris-Short

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Drawing on extensive experience, the authors offer a detailed and authoritative exposition of family law illustrated by materials carefully selected from a wide range of sources. The book’s principal aims are to provide readers with a thorough understanding of family law, in a way that stimulates critical reflection. Readers are encouraged to consider how and why the law has developed as it has, what policies it is seeking to pursue, whether it achieves the right balance between the rights and interests of individual family members and the wider public interest, and how it operates in practice. This edition provides updates and revised discussion on: civil partnership after R (Steinfeld and Keidan) (2018); divorce law following Owens v Owens (2018) and the government’s consultation on reform; domestic abuse, including consultation ahead of the draft Domestic Abuse Bill and forced marriage; rights under the ECHR and UNCRC in children proceedings; surrogacy following Re Z (A Child) (No 2) (2016); child arrangements orders; specific issue and prohibited steps orders, including relocation law; local authority voluntary accommodation following Williams v London Borough of Hackney (2018). There is a new chapter dedicated to property and financial issues after the breakdown of relationships other than marriage and civil partnership. The introductory chapter, supported by materials on the Online Resources, considers some of the contemporary challenges faced by the family justice system.

Chapter

Cover Bromley's Family Law

17. Public Law Proceedings Concerning Children  

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This is the first of two chapters discussing child protection issues—what is often called the public law concerning children. Chapter 17 begins with a consideration of the basic dilemmas of child protection followed by an overview of the development of local authority powers. It explains the current basic legal framework and provisions for local authorities to provide services for families; specific duties and powers; accommodating children in need; and secure accommodation. The chapter ends by focusing on the local authorities’ investigative powers and duties. It covers the general duty of investigation under s 47 of the Children Act 1989; co-operating with other agencies to discharge investigative duties; emergency protection orders; child assessment orders; and police protection.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

10. Public Law Protection  

Penelope Russell

Public law protection of children challenges one of the fundamental principles of England and Wales that children are best brought up by their parents. Unlimited state intervention in the family is not permitted and the courts have to strike a balance between maintaining stability for children within their family, and protecting them from harm. This chapter considers the statutory duties of the local authority towards children as well as emergency action to protect a child. It examines what has to be proven to obtain a care order and the evidential difficulties connected with this; in particular, the difficulties posed for the courts where harm is caused to a child by an unknown perpetrator. The chapter ends by exploring the options available to the court at the welfare assessment once the threshold criteria have been met.

Chapter

Cover Bromley's Family Law

21. The 1996 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children  

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

Many relationships are now transnational ones between parties from different cultures and countries. The breakdown of these relationships means that increasing numbers of children are caught up in cross-border disputes. Such disputes raise a variety of issues, including which court should hear any question concerning the children’s upbringing, what happens if each parent brings separate proceedings at the same time, and about the enforceability of orders, for example that a parent living in one country should see their child in another country. Now that the UK has left the European Union the key international instrument for dealing with these issues is the 1996 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children which provides basic rules of jurisdiction for hearing cases concerning children and a consequential system of recognition and enforcement of decisions concerning parental responsibility. This chapter discusses the following aspects of the 1996 Convention: its aims, scope, the jurisdictional rules, applicable law with regard to parental responsibility, recognition and enforcement, the placement of children abroad and safeguarding rights of access.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

12. Human Rights, Children’s Rights, and Family Law  

Helen Stalford, Seamus Byrne, and Nazia Yaqub

This chapter explores children’s rights in the context of family law and family life. It aims to look at family law through the lens of the human rights of children and the associated theoretical, doctrinal, and empirical scholarship. It begins with a brief overview of the international children’s rights framework underpinning this area, including the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the European Convention on Human Rights. It then points to some of the cultural, legal, and practical obstacles to the protection of children’s rights in the context of family law. The updated chapter responds to changes in the law arising as a result of Brexit and the recent legislative changes on corporal punishment across the different UK jurisdictions.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

7. Domestic Violence and Abuse  

Anna Carline and Roxanna Dehaghani

Domestic violence and abuse impact the lives of millions every year. Historically, such conduct was considered to be a private matter, and outside the remit of the law. While domestic violence and abuse is now recognised to be an important social issue, the historical acceptance of such abuse provides a context to understand some of the difficulties that victims face today. A key focus of the chapter is the family law remedies available for domestic abuse victims. Three key remedies are examined: non-molestation orders, occupation orders, and forced marriage protection orders. In addition to this, the chapter will explore the definition of domestic abuse, which is now set out in the Domestic Abuse Act 2021. The chapter also explores some of the wider factors pertaining to the family justice system’s response to domestic violence and abuse. This includes the impact of the changes to legal aid as introduced by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012, and the recent special measures brought in to support domestic abuse victims during court proceedings, introduced by the Domestic Abuse Act 2021.

Chapter

Cover Hayes & Williams' Family Law

10. Children needing services, care, and protection  

This chapter examines the relationship between children, parents, and the state, looking at how the law responds to children needing services, care, and protection. Topics discussed include: Part III of the Children Act 1989; the threshold for compulsory intervention in family life based on the concept of ‘significant harm’; protecting children in an emergency; care and supervision orders; the local authority’s care plan and respective roles of the local authority and court; and discharge of care orders.

Chapter

Cover Hayes & Williams' Family Law

8. Children’s rights  

This chapter introduces some theoretical discussions concerning children’s rights and examines some ‘core’ legal provisions. It also looks at the case law related to which the issue of the legal protection of children’s interests has been explored. The focus is on the child’s right to make his or her own decisions as a possible limitation on parental responsibility, explored principally in the context of children’s medical treatment.

Book

Cover Family Law

Rob George, Sharon Thompson, and Joanna Miles

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Drawing on extensive experience, the authors offer a detailed and authoritative exposition of family law illustrated by materials carefully selected from a wide range of sources. The book’s principal aims are to provide readers with a thorough understanding of family law in a way that stimulates critical reflection. Readers are encouraged to consider how and why the law has developed as it has, what policies it is seeking to pursue, whether it achieves the right balance between the rights and interests of individual family members and the wider public interest, and how it operates in practice. This edition provides updates and revised discussion on: the advent of mixed-sex civil partnership; a thoroughly overhauled chapter on divorce law, in light of the reform effected by the Divorce, Dissolution and Separation Act 2020; new laws relating to domestic abuse, introduced by the Domestic Abuse Act 2021; a revised analysis of Gillick competence and children’s autonomy rights in light of recent case law; and detailed consideration of the latest developments in relation to contact and domestic abuse after Re H-N (Domestic Abuse: Findings of Fact Hearings) [2021] EWCA Civ 448. Updated case law includes Guest v Guest [2022] UKSC 27, Bell v Tavistock and Portman NHS Trust [2021] EWCA Civ 1363, R (McConnell) v The Registrar General for England and Wales [2020] EWCA Civ 559, Re H-N (Domestic Abuse: Finding of Fact Hearings) [2021] EWCA Civ 448, Re H-W (Care Proceedings) [2022] UKSC 17, and Re A, B and C (Adoption: Notification of Fathers and Relatives) [2020] EWCA Civ 41.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

12. Child Protection  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the law on state intervention into family life where a child is considered to be ‘in need’ or at risk of significant harm. It discusses the competing approaches to state intervention and the principles underpinning the Children Act (CA) 1989; the legal framework governing local authority support for children in need under Part III of the CA 1989 and the Social Services and Well-Being (Wales) Act 2014; the law and procedure regulating compulsory intervention into family life by means of care proceedings under Part IV; and the various emergency and interim measures available to protect a child thought to be at risk of immediate harm.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

4. Domestic Abuse  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses what the law can do directly to punish and rehabilitate perpetrators of domestic abuse and to protect victims. The chapter sets out the latest empirical data regarding domestic abuse and considers various theories regarding domestic violence. The chapter addresses the requirements of human rights law in this area; the criminal justice system and domestic violence; the civil law and domestic violence; the Family Law Act (FLA) 1996, Part 4; enforcement of orders under the FLA 1996; third party action on behalf of victims, including the Crime and Security Act 2010 and latest proposals to enhance such powers; and legal responses to forced marriage.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

12. Child Protection  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the law on state intervention into family life where a child is considered to be ‘in need’ or at risk of significant harm. It discusses the competing approaches to state intervention and the principles underpinning the Children Act (CA) 1989; the legal framework governing local authority support for children in need under Part III of the CA 1989 and the Social Services and Well-Being (Wales) Act 2014; the law and procedure regulating compulsory intervention into family life by means of care proceedings under Part IV; and the various emergency and interim measures available to protect a child thought to be at risk of immediate harm.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

4. Protection from Domestic Abuse  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses what the law can do directly to punish and rehabilitate perpetrators of domestic abuse and to protect victims. The chapter sets out the latest empirical data regarding domestic abuse and considers various theories regarding domestic abuse. The chapter addresses the requirements of human rights law in this area; the criminal justice system and domestic abuse; the civil law and domestic abuse; the Family Law Act 1996, Part 4; third party action on behalf of victims, now under the Domestic Abuse Act 2021; and legal responses to forced marriage.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Family Law

11. The Law Relating to Children: Public Law and Adoption  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam and assignment questions. Each book includes key debates, typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and tips to gain extra marks. This chapter deals with the public law relating to children, contained in Parts III, IV, and V of the Children Act 1989, and the law relating to adoption, under the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The questions contained in this chapter are a mixture of essay and problem questions that focus on: emergency protection for children, i.e. police protection, emergency protection orders, and local authority enquires; care, supervision, and education supervision orders; the difference between adoption and special guardianship orders and finally, the requirements and procedures for adoption.

Chapter

Cover Family Law Concentrate

4. Domestic abuse  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on domestic abuse and its causes, along with a number of relevant civil law and criminal law remedies. It explains non-molestation orders under the Family Law Act 1996 before turning to a discussion of breach of an order as a contempt of court. It also considers occupation orders, which regulate the occupation of property, along with various categories of applicant who can seek them. Finally, the chapter examines protection available to parties who are not associated persons under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997.

Chapter

Cover Family Law Concentrate

7. Children—public law  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on public law matters concerning children under the Children Act 1989, first explains the powers and duties of local authorities, as well as those of the police, to protect children in need. It then considers emergency protection orders, which may be granted where a child is in need of immediate protection, along with interim orders and child assessment orders. The chapter also examines the ‘threshold criteria’ in section 31(2) of the Children Act 1989, which allows the court to make a care or supervision order, before concluding with an assessment of the Human Rights Act 1998 and its impact on the law in relation to care proceedings.