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Chapter

Cover Tort Law

11. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter discusses occupiers’ liability, which deals with the risks posed, and harms caused, by dangerous places and buildings. In such cases, the occupier of the premises may be liable where a person who comes onto their land is injured in or by unsafe premises if the occupier has not taken reasonable care to ensure that those entering are safe. The general principles of negligence have been incorporated into, and modified by, statute in the form of the Occupiers’ Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. Although the Acts define the circumstances in which a duty of care will be owed (and tell us something as to its extent, as well as matters relating to its discharge and limitation), questions of breach and causation still need to be established by reference to the ordinary principles of negligence.

Book

Cover Street on Torts

Christian Witting

Street on Torts provides a wide-ranging overview, and a clear and accurate explanation of tort law. The book consists of nine parts. Part I provides an introduction to the subject, including examination of protected interests in tort and the history of this branch of law beginning with the ancient trespass torts. Part II looks at negligent infringements of the person, property and financial interests, as well as examining the liability in negligence of public authorities. Part III looks at intentional invasions of interests in the person and property. Part IV looks at misrepresentation-based and general economic torts. Part V is about torts of strict or stricter liability (that is, where fault plays either no part or a lesser part in liability decisions) and includes consideration of nuisance and product liability. Part VI considers interests in reputation (ie defamation). Part VII is about actions in privacy. Part VIII looks at the misuse of process and public powers. The final part, Part IX, is about vicarious liability, parties, and remedies.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

6. Defences to Negligence  

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant's claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

6. Special duty problems: public bodies  

This chapter explains what happens when a public body owes a private law duty of care to an individual who claims against it in negligence. It remains the case that public bodies will be liable where the negligent exercise of their powers makes a situation worse than it already was. The discussions cover the general exclusionary rule; the current state of the law; the background to D v East Berkshire [2005]; rules for claims brought against the emergency services (including the police) and armed forces; other types of public body; and new types of claims: education-based claims and ‘social’ claims.

Book

Cover Lunney & Oliphant's Tort Law
Tort Law: Text and Materials brings together a selection of carefully chosen extracts from cases and materials, with extensive commentary. Each section begins with a clear overview of the law, followed by illustrative extracts from case law and from government reports and scholarly literature, which are supported by explanation and analysis. The authors start by introducing the subject, and then examine intentional interference with the person before moving on to liability for negligence. Their analysis provides an overview of negligence liability in general, and then addresses in turn breach of duty, causation and remoteness, defences to negligence and specific duty of care issues (psychiatric illness, economic loss and omissions and acts of third parties). In the following chapter, the authors consider the statutory regimes governing occupiers’ liability and product liability, as well as the tort of breach of statutory duty. The focus then switches to nuisance and the rule in Rylands v Fletcher, defamation, and privacy, before turning to vicarious liability, and damages for personal injury and death. Finally, how tort works in practice is explored.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

12. Product liability  

This chapter discusses the ways in which liability for defective products is regulated in tort law and which is primarily regulated by statute. The chapter considers manufacturers’ liability in negligence and the problems claimants may encounter when trying to sue. This leads to a later development relating to product liability—the Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 1987—enacted to ensure better protection of consumers from defective goods by making producers strictly liable for harms caused by the products they market. However, a claimant may still claim in negligence due to the statutory limitations in relation to certain types of claim.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

9. Causation and remoteness of damage  

This chapter discusses the final ‘hurdle’ for the claimant to overcome in the tort of negligence—causation. The claimant must prove that their injuries were caused by the defendant’s actions in both fact and law. To establish cause in fact, the claimant must show, on the balance of probabilities, that the defendant’s breach caused their harm. Tests for cause in law encompass a remoteness test (which involves establishing whether the damage that occurred was foreseeable to the defendant at the time of the negligence). It is the type of harm that must be foreseeable, not its extent. The last part of the test is to ask whether any intervening acts (acts that occurred after the defendant’s breach) broke the chain of causation. If so, the defendant will not be liable.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

1. General Introduction  

This chapter first discusses the historical development of tort law, covering the origins of tort law; the forms of action; the development of fault-based liability; eighteenth-century developments; the classification of obligations; and the modern pre-eminence of negligence. It then turns to theories of tort, covering the aims of the law of tort and doctrinal classifications. Finally, the chapter considers modern influences on tort law, covering the influence of insurance; the influence of human rights; and concerns about ‘compensation culture’.

Book

Cover Tort Law Directions
Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This book covers all the core areas of tort law, combining an engaging approach with plenty of learning features. It provides a detailed introduction to the key principles of tort law, and illustrates the points of law through discussions of important court cases. Key cases are discussed to illustrate the main principles of tort law; they help to bring the subject to life, allowing students to see how the law operates in practice. This new edition of the text includes increased focus on the influence of human rights on tort law. It is fully updated with recent case law highlighting how quickly tort law is developing particularly.

Book

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

Mark Lunney, Donal Nolan, and Ken Oliphant

Tort Law: Text and Materials brings together a selection of carefully chosen extracts from cases and materials, with extensive commentary. Each section begins with a clear overview of the law, followed by illustrative extracts from case law and from government reports and scholarly literature, which are supported by explanation and analysis. The authors start by introducing the subject, and then examine intentional interference with the person before moving on to liability for negligence. Their analysis provides an overview of negligence liability in general, and then addresses in turn breach of duty, causation and remoteness, defences to negligence, and specific duty of care issues (psychiatric illness, economic loss, omissions and acts of third parties, and public bodies). In the following chapter, the authors consider the special liability regimes for employers and occupiers, as well as product liability and breach of statutory duty. The focus then switches to nuisance and the rule in Rylands v Fletcher, defamation, and privacy, before turning to vicarious liability, and damages for personal injury and death. Finally, they explore how tort works in practice.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

3. The Standard of Care in Negligence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the reader to the fault principle or negligence standard, along with its positive and negative implications. This chapter first asks. ‘What is negligence?’. It covers the standard of care and, within this, it looks at the objective standard. The chapter goes on to explore the way in which professional skill and care are assessed in the medical context. It also considers reasonable risk-taking and the absence of evidence of fault.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

10. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter focuses on the liability of an occupier to persons who are injured on their premises and the Occupiers’ Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984. The discussion considers the relationship between occupiers’ liability and negligence, what makes someone an ‘occupier’ or ‘visitor’, the duty owed to visitors and to trespassers and other non-visitors, and the exclusion of liability. The basis of liability is fault, and, to visitors at least, the duty differs little from the requirements of negligence, but there are sufficient differences to make it subject to a special chapter. These differences arise partly for historical reasons, but also because of the need to balance the rights of the occupier to deal with their property as they wish and the need to protect entrants from injury.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

11. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter discusses occupiers’ liability, which deals with the risks posed, and harms caused, by dangerous places and buildings. In such cases, the occupier of the premises may be liable where a person who comes onto their land is injured in or by unsafe premises if the occupier has not taken reasonable care to ensure that those entering are safe. The general principles of negligence have been incorporated into, and modified by, statute in the form of the Occupiers’ Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. Although the Acts define the circumstances in which a duty of care will be owed (and tell us something as to its extent, as well as matters relating to its discharge and limitation), questions of breach and causation still need to be established by reference to the ordinary principles of negligence.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

9. Liability for defective premises and structures  

This chapter examines the potential liability for injury and/or other forms of loss arising from being upon or use of defective premises and structures. It explains that there are two types of defendant in this area of negligence. The first are persons actually occupying premises and the second are those who might be liable for defects in the premises including landlords, builders, and professionals such as architects and consulting engineers. Much of the relevant law here is statutory, the common law supplementing the statutory provisions. This chapter discusses the provisions of the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957, the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1984, and Defective Premises Act 1972.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

4. Causation  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the issue of causation. Damages are due to the victim only if the harm was due to the tortfeasor. The harm must be the effect of the defendant's misconduct and causation must be established. The principal question to ask in matters of causation is: Did the breach of duty contribute to the occurrence of the harm? At all costs one must avoid the easy supposition that a result can have only one cause, or that one must seek out the ‘main’ cause, relevant though this may be in claims under an insurance policy. The chapter also identifies three ways that the law lets a defendant off the hook even though the harm would not have occurred but for his negligence. These are the rules of remoteness, intervention, and purpose.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

23. Defences  

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the role of defences in the law of torts. It then considers their application to torts which require proof of damage in order to be actionable, and in particular with the tort of negligence. The discussions cover contributory negligence; consent; exclusion and limitation of liability; illegality; necessity; inevitable accident; authorisation; and limitation of action. The chapter takes into account recent statutory developments including the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 on the law governing exclusion and limitation of liability. It also examines the extensive Supreme Court case law reexamining the defence of illegality.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

3. Establishing Liability in Principle: Duty of Care  

This chapter discusses the following: the duty concept and the elements of the tort of negligence; formulating the duty of care; kinds of damage; the manner of infliction; and the way in which the notion of duty confines liability by reference to the nature of the parties involved.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Book

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Kidner’s Casebook on Torts provides a comprehensive, portable library of the leading cases in the field. It presents a wide range of carefully edited extracts, which illustrate the essence and reasoning behind each decision made. Concise author commentary focuses the reader on the key elements within the extracts. Statutory materials are also included where they are necessary to understand the subject. The book examines the tort of negligence including chapters on the basic principles of duty of care, omissions and acts of third parties, the liability of public bodies, psychiatric harm, economic loss, breach of duty, causation and remoteness of damage and defences. It goes on to consider three special liability regimes—occupiers’ liability, product liability and breach of statutory duty—before turning to discussion of the personal torts and land torts. It concludes with chapters on vicarious liability and damages.