1-5 of 5 Results  for:

  • Keyword: negligence liability x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

10. Remedies Part II: Principles That Can Limit the Damages Awarded Following a Breach  

This chapter studies the principles that can limit the damages awarded following a breach of contract. It starts with the principle of causation. The idea here is that the breach must have caused the loss. A related issue is the limited application of contributory negligence. Where relevant, damages can be reduced to reflect any fault on the part of the innocent claimant. Both of these factors are of fairly minor importance. The main limiting factor is the principle of remoteness. It is a principle that limits liability to the risks the party in breach appeared to accept. Finally, the chapter looks at the duty to mitigate losses. This requires the innocent party to take reasonable steps to reduce (and not unreasonably increase) the loss suffered after a breach. Depending on the facts, disputes can involve any or all of these limitations.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

13. Exclusion Clauses  

This chapter discusses one particular type of boilerplate clause, namely the exclusion or limitation clause. The chapter examines the role and function of exclusion and limitation clauses in modern commercial contracts. In order to perform its function an exclusion or limitation clause must (i) be validly incorporated into the contract, (ii) cover the loss that has been suffered, and (iii) survive scrutiny under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977. Difficult interpretative issues can arise where one party seeks to exclude liability in respect of its own negligence or exclude liability for fundamental breach. The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 applies a reasonableness test to a number of exclusion or limitation clauses. The 1977 Act is also examined, with particular reference to the types of clause that fall within its scope.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

6. Exemption clauses and unfair contract terms  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter deals with exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. An exemption clause is a term in a contract or notice that can be either an exclusion clause (excluding liability or remedies) or a limitation clause (limiting liability to a specified sum). The chapter primarily focuses on the requirements that must be satisfied before an exemption clause can be relied upon, the question of construction and the natural and ordinary meaning of the clause, contra proferentem, liability for negligence, limitation clauses, inconsistent terms, and fundamental breach. It then examines the legislative regulation of exemption clauses, emphasizing the growing distinction between commercial and consumer contracts in this context. It considers in some depth the enforceability of exemption clauses in a B2B context in accordance with the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and its interpretation in case law. In the B2C context, it discusses control of unfair terms in accordance with Part 2 of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and the case law interpreting the previous legislative regulation of unfair terms.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

6. Exemption clauses and unfair contract terms  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter deals with exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. An exemption clause is a term in a contract or notice that can be either an exclusion clause (excluding liability or remedies) or a limitation clause (limiting liability to a specified sum). The chapter primarily focuses on the requirements that must be satisfied before an exemption clause can be relied upon, the question of construction and the natural and ordinary meaning of the clause, contra proferentem, liability for negligence, limitation clauses, inconsistent terms, and fundamental breach. It then examines the legislative regulation of exemption clauses, emphasizing the growing distinction between commercial and consumer contracts in this context. It considers in some depth the enforceability of exemption clauses in a B2B context in accordance with the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and its interpretation in case law. In the B2C context, it discusses control of unfair terms in accordance with Part 2 of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and the case law interpreting the previous legislative regulation of unfair terms.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

6. Exemption clauses and unfair contract terms  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the use and enforceability of exemption clauses (total exclusion or limitation of liability clauses inserted into contracts) and their legislative regulation. Whereas the regulation of such clauses is limited to the common law and UCTA 1977 in the case of commercial contracts (B2B), in the case of consumer contracts (B2C) the law intervenes to control a broader category of terms, ‘unfair contract terms’ (Consumer Rights Act 2015) with the critical test being ‘unfairness’.