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20. Ending Employment Contracts at Common Law; and Duties to Redundant and Transferring Staff  

This chapter identifies the remedy for the termination of contracts of employment through the common law claim of wrongful dismissal. It addresses situations of redundancy, and the rights of individuals and obligations on employers when the business is transferred to a new owner. Each of these measures offer protection to employees, and employers should understand the nature of these rights, the qualifications necessary for each mechanism, and the remedies available, to ensure they select the most appropriate mechanism to bring the employment relationship to an end. Before the 1960s, contracts of employment were largely dealt with by the ‘normal’ rules of contract law and were often heard by courts that hear contractual disputes. It is important to be aware of the mechanisms that will enable termination of the employment relationship without transgressing the law in order to maintain good working relations.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

10. Ending the Contract  

This chapter discusses other ways in which a valid contract may be discharged, aside from the successful completion of established rights and duties. It also discusses possible remedies where a party breaches the contract. Under the normal rules of contract, a party is only discharged from a contract when that party has completed obligations under it. Having completed the contract each party is free of further obligations. A failure to complete the contract may lead to a breach of contract claim, although situations exist where the parties may release each other from further obligation—referred to as discharge by agreement—or the contract may have been partially or substantially performed. This chapter examines discharge through performance and agreement, how contracts may become frustrated, and the consequences and remedies following a breach of contract.

Chapter

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5. An introduction to the law of contract  

This chapter provides an introduction to the law of contract. It discusses several preliminary pre-contractual issues and explains that though most contracts do not require formalities, a number of important ones impose certain requirements and failure to comply may render the contract unenforceable. The ability of persons to enter into contracts (that is, their capacity) is also discussed where it is noted that certain persons cannot enter into legally binding contracts. The chapter also clarifies why contracts are enforced. This chapter also discusses the rules governing privity of contract and considers the role of third parties in enforcing a contractual term via statute and common law principles.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

9. The Sale of Goods and Supply of Services  

This chapter discusses the rules relating to agreements for the sale and supply of goods and services. Contracts for the sale of goods and terms implied into business to business contracts by the Sale of Goods Act 1979 are examined. The Consumer Rights Act 2015, introduced to simplify and enhance the position of consumers, is considered. The terms of contracts between traders and consumers for the sale and supply of goods, services, and digital content are discussed together with remedies for breach of contract. Rights to ownership and possession of goods, and when rights may be transferred from a seller to a buyer are explained. General rules on delivery of goods, the duties of a seller and buyer, and the remedies available for breach are discussed. Finally, the terms of business to business contracts for the supply of goods and services, hire of goods, and hire purchase are discussed.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

6. The Terms of a Contract  

This chapter discusses the terms of a contract. The terms are the contents of the contract. They also state what the parties’ legal duties and obligations are to each other. Terms may be written, oral, or even implied into a contract. This chapter discusses the difference between a term of a contract and a representation and the difference between express and implied terms. It considers the types of contractual terms, conditions, warranties, and innominate terms, and the distinction between them. The nature of exemption clauses and the methods used by the courts to restrict the use of such clauses and the effects on exemption clauses of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and Consumer Rights Act 2015 are examined. The chapter concludes with a discussion of restraint of trade clauses commonly found in contracts of employment, contracts for the sale of businesses, and solus agreements

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

8. Discharge of Contract and Contractual Remedies  

The discharge of a contract means that the obligations of the contract come to an end. When discharge occurs, all duties which arose under the contract are terminated. This chapter discusses the various methods of discharging a contract and the consequences of each. It considers how a contract can be discharged through agreement between the parties; the elements necessary for a contract to be discharged by performance, including the rules relating to partial performance of a contract; and the meaning and effect of the frustration of a contract. The chapter discusses the meaning of breach of contract, both actual breach and anticipatory breach, and its consequences. The remedies for a breach of contract are explored, including the rules relating to remoteness and measure of damages and the difference between liquidated damages and penalties. Equitable remedies of specific performance and injunctions are explained.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

11. The Tort of Negligence  

This chapter discusses the difference between the law of torts and contract and criminal law. It explores the tort of negligence, considering the necessary elements for a claim of negligence, namely the defendant owed the claimant a duty of care, the defendant breached that duty of care, and reasonably foreseeable damage was caused by the breach of duty. The chapter considers the special requirements for the recovery of pure economic loss and for loss as a result of psychiatric injuries, looking at both primary and secondary victims. The principles relating to breach of a duty of care, including the standard of care, are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the final element, considering the need for a causal link between the breach of duty by the defendant and the damage suffered by the claimant.

Chapter

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25. The contract of employment  

This chapter examines the issues concerning contracts of employment. It begins by looking at how employment law disputes are resolved, namely by discussing the role of employment tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal, and how they fit into the courts structure discussed in Chapter 2. The chapter than discusses the difference between employees and independent contractors, and looks at the status of several special classes of worker. An examination of the terms of the contract then takes place, including a discussion of express terms, and the terms that are implied that relate to the conduct of the employer and employee.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

4. The Nature of the Agreement  

Offer and Acceptance

This chapter discusses the nature of contracts, the essential elements of a valid contract, and issues in contract law. A contract is a bargain, made between two or more persons, which is legally binding. The essential elements of a valid contract are the following: agreement (offer and acceptance of definite terms); consideration (a promise to give, do, or refrain from doing something in return for a similar promise); an intention to create legal relations (usually presumed in a business transaction); compliance with required formalities where applicable; and capacity to contract. This chapter discusses in detail the principal rules relating to offer and acceptance. It considers the making and termination of offers in unilateral and bilateral contracts. It explains the rules relating to communication and methods of acceptance of offers and discusses the making of contracts via the internet.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

5. Intention, Capacity, Consideration, and Privity  

This chapter examines issues relating to contract formation. It discusses the elements of an intention to create legal relations and the presumptions relating to commercial or business agreements and domestic agreements. It considers the law relating to capacity to contract, looking at the enforceability of different types of contracts made with minors. It considers the validity of contracts made with corporations and persons who may lack capacity through mental illness or intoxication. It also explains the importance of consideration in a contract, what constitutes consideration, whether consideration provided is sufficient, and who must provide the consideration. It discusses the law relating to part-payment of debts and promissory estoppel. Finally, the chapter considers the doctrine of privity of contract, and the exceptions to the doctrine, including the Contract (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999

Book

Cover Card & James' Business Law
Card & James’ Business Law provides analysis of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, company law, and employment law, with online chapters providing further discussion relating to the economic torts, corporate governance, the sale of goods, consumer credit, and the law relating to unfair and illegal commercial practices. All of this is discussed using relevant examples from the business environment, and the key legal cases to help develop a greater understanding of the interconnections between the law and the corporate setting. Part I of the book looks at the English legal system. Part II looks at the law of contract including the formation, terms, exclusion clauses, and remedies. Part III looks at the law of torts in detail. Part IV considers partnership and company law including business structures, the constituents of a company, shares, capital maintenance, shareholders remedies, and corporate rescue. Finally, Part V is about employment law.

Book

Cover Introduction to Business Law
Introduction to Business Law demonstrates the relevance of key areas of the law to a world of work that the business student can relate to. Students of business often find business law modules challenging, irrelevant to their future career, and full of alien terminology and concepts. Structured in eight parts, this book provides a foundation in the key legal concepts of the English legal system, contract law, and negligence before discussing how the law affects the everyday workings of businesses and their employees from protecting intellectual property rights to company formation, winding up and insolvency. It covers a variety of topics around the subjects of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, employment law, the structure and management of business and the major intellectual property rights.