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Cover International Law

19. The International Court of Justice  

Hugh Thirlway

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), which is defined in the UN Charter as the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations, is a standing mechanism for the peaceful settlement of disputes between States. It may also give advisory opinions on the law, at the request of the Security Council and General Assembly, or of other UN organs and specialized agencies that are so authorized by the General Assembly. No dispute can be the subject of a decision of the Court unless the States parties to it have consented to the Court’s jurisdiction over that specific dispute. This chapter discusses the history, structure, and composition of the Court, the ways in which jurisdiction is conferred upon it, its procedure, and the nature and effect of decisions (judgments and advisory opinions) of the ICJ.

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Cover International Law

10. Jurisdiction  

Christopher Staker

This chapter focuses on the principles of international law that govern the right of States to apply their laws to conduct and events occurring within or outside their own territories; the resolution of disputes arising from overlapping jurisdictional claims; and the problems of enforcing national laws. The discussions cover the meaning of ‘jurisdiction’; the significance of the principles of jurisdiction; doctrinal analysis of jurisdiction; the territorial principle; the national principle; the protective principle; the universal principle; treaty-based extensions of jurisdiction; controversial bases of prescriptive jurisdiction; types of jurisdiction; limitations upon jurisdiction; inadequacies of the traditional approach; and the fundamental principle governing enforcement jurisdiction.

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Cover International Law

18. The Means of Dispute Settlement  

John Merrills

This chapter discusses the various methods available for the peaceful settlement of international disputes. These include diplomatic methods (negotiation, mediation, inquiry, and conciliation), and legal methods (arbitration, the International Court of Justice, other courts and tribunals, and the place of legal methods). The role of the United Nations and regional organizations is also considered. Discussion covers the role of international law and its place in international relations, and dispute settlement generally. The text is illustrated with analysis of current and past disputes in which the various methods have been used—either successfully or unsuccessfully. The historical record shows first, that over the last two hundred years huge progress has been made in developing and refining the methods for handling international disputes, and secondly, that despite, or perhaps because of, differences between the various methods, their interaction and use in combination are often important factors in determining their effectiveness in practice.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

32. Third party settlement of international disputes  

This chapter discusses the third party settlement of international disputes. It covers arbitration and the origins of international dispute settlement; the idea of judicial settlement of international disputes; the International Court of Justice, interstate arbitration, dispute settlement under UNCLOS, the WTO dispute settlement body, and international investment tribunals.

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Cover International Law

3. The Principles of the International Legal System  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. The closest thing to a manifesto for international law is the Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1970 as resolution 2625 (XXV). This chapter first examines the seven basic principles of the resolution: the prohibition on the threat or use of force; the duty to settle disputes peacefully; the duty of non-intervention; the duty to co-operate; (v) the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; the principle of sovereign equality of States; and (vii) the principle of good faith. The discussions then turn to the nature of the Declaration; provisions on State responsibility; the implementation of international responsibility; personality and the scope of application of international law; international law in domestic courts; international law in international tribunals; the diplomatic protection of nationals; and international law outside tribunals.

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Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

16. Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes  

An international legal order must have rules in regard to the settlement of disputes. These rules are particularly necessary in an international community where States are not equal in terms of diplomatic power, access to weapons or access to resources, and where there is the potential for massive harm to people and to territory. This chapter discusses the general obligation on States; non-judicial settlement procedures; arbitration; specific international tribunals; the International Court of Justice and its interaction with the Security Council.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

31. The claims process  

This chapter considers preliminary issues, involving both jurisdiction and admissibility, before international courts and tribunals. It discusses prior negotiations, the requirement of a dispute, grounds of inadmissibility, diplomatic protection, and mixed claims.

Book

Cover International Law

Gleider Hernández

International Law presents a comprehensive approach to the subject, providing a contemporary account of international law. The text offers critical and stimulating coverage of the central issues in public international law, introducing the key areas of debate. It encourages readers to engage with areas of legal debate and controversy and consider how they affect the world today. Topics covered include: the structure of international law; the subjects within the field of international law; international law in operation; international disputes and responses to breaches in international law; and specialized regimes, which include the law of armed conflict, refugee law, international criminal law, the law of the sea, the environment and protection, and international economic law.

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Cover International Law Concentrate

10. Peaceful settlement of disputes  

This chapter examines the means and methods relating to the peaceful settlement of international disputes. The UN Charter obliges States to resolve their disputes peacefully and suggests certain means for such settlement: on the one hand, diplomatic means, like negotiation, mediation, conciliation, or the ‘good offices’ of the UN Secretary General and, on the other, legal methods, such as arbitration and recourse to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which are binding. The ICJ exercises its jurisdiction over contentious cases only upon the consent of the parties to the dispute, which may be expressed through various forms (eg compromis or optional clause declaration). The ICJ may also render advisory opinions to questions of international law posed by the UN General Assembly, the Security Council, or other competent organs and organizations. The chapter also explains dispute settlement in the context of international investor–State arbitration and in the World Trade Organization.

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Cover International Law

12. The peaceful settlement of disputes  

This chapter discusses some of the more relevant methods for peaceful dispute settlement. It begins by introducing a number of non-adjudicatory settlement mechanisms and providing a brief overview of the role played by the UN. It then discusses the adjudicatory means of settling disputes, including international arbitration; the competences and powers of the International Court of Justice; issues of access to the Court and the Court’s jurisdiction in contentious cases; the power of the Court to issue provisional measures; the effects of the Court’s decisions; the relationship between the Court and the UN Security Council; and the Court’s competence to issue advisory opinions.

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Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

3. Rights and Obligations of States Concerning Protection of the Environment  

This chapter argues that rule and principles of general international law concerning protection of the environment can be identified. It should not be forgotten that international environmental law is not a separate or self-contained field of law, and nor is it currently comprehensively codified or set out in a single treaty or body of treaties. It could be argued that international environmental law is merely the application of established rules, principles, and processes of general international law to the resolution of international environmental problems and disputes, without the need for creating new law, or even for developing old law. The chapter looks in detail at the issues around the expectations and realities of international environmental law.

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

9. Acquisition and transfer of territorial sovereignty  

Disputes concerning title to land territory, including islands, and over the precise determination of boundaries are regularly the subject of international proceedings. While the occupation of territory not belonging to any state (terra nullius) is no longer a live issue, issues concerning such occupation in the past may still arise. This chapter discusses the following, the ‘modes’ of acquisition, displacement of title, territorial disputes, and territorial sovereignty and peremptory norms.

Chapter

Cover International Law

12. The peaceful settlement of disputes  

This chapter discusses some of the more relevant methods for peaceful dispute settlement. It begins by introducing a number of non-adjudicatory settlement mechanisms and providing a brief overview of the role played by the UN. It then discusses the adjudicatory means of settling disputes, including international arbitration; the competences and powers of the International Court of Justice; issues of access to the Court and the Court’s jurisdiction in contentious cases; the power of the Court to issue provisional measures; the effects of the Court’s decisions; the relationship between the Court and the UN Security Council; and the Court’s competence to issue advisory opinions.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

1. International Law and the Environment  

This chapter provides an overview of the purpose of this book. It starts by saying what the book does not expect to do. The text does not intend to answer the question whether the law we have now serves the needs of environmental justice or fairness among nations, generations, or peoples. It does, however, attempt to show, inter alia, how international law has developed a framework for cooperation on environmental matters between developed and developing states; for the adoption of measures aimed at control of pollution and conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; for the resolution of international environmental disputes; for the promotion of greater transparency and public participation in environmental decision-making; and for the adoption and harmonization of national environmental law.

Book

Cover Cassese's International Law

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalá

This book provides an authoritative account of international law. It preserves and extends Antonio Cassese’s exceptional combination of a historically informed, conceptually strong, and practice-infused analysis of international law, comparing the treatment of most issues in classical international law with the main subsequent developments of this constantly evolving field. Part I of the book covers the origins and foundations of the international community. Part II is about the subjects of the international community, including States, international organizations, individuals, and other international legal subjects. Part III examines the main processes of international law-making and the normative interactions between different norms, of both domestic and international law. Part IV studies the mechanisms of implementation of international law, including State responsibility, diplomatic and judicial means of dispute settlement, and enforcement mechanisms. Part V covers a number of areas which have undergone particular development and reached a high level of specialization, namely, UN law, the law governing the use of force, international humanitarian law, international human rights law, international criminal law, international environmental law, and international economic law (trade and investment).

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Cover International Law

12. International dispute settlement and the ICJ  

This chapter examines the various political or diplomatic methods available for international dispute settlement. These methods include negotiation, mediation or ‘good offices’, inquiry, and conciliation. The array of diplomatic techniques available to parties to resolve a dispute is complemented by various means of settling disputes through the application of binding solutions based on the law. Two in particular, arbitration and adjudication, principally developed from earlier forms of non-binding settlement. Though these are different, they are linked by two principal characteristics. Foremost, they allow for a third party to issue a decision that is binding on the parties. Secondly, resorting to these methods requires the prior consent of the parties. The chapter then considers the International Court of Justice, the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations. The ICJ’s structure was frequently utilized as a model for later judicial institutions, making an enormous contribution to the development of international law.

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Cover International Law

8. The international law of the sea  

The international law of the sea is one of the oldest disciplines of public international law. In fact, the identification and application of principles for governing the roughly 70 per cent of the earth’s surface that consists of water has been a topic of interest for centuries. This chapter deals with the main principles and rules that make up the international legal regulation of the seas. It begins by discussing the most important legal sources in the law of the sea, including the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention. It then discusses the spatial partitioning of the sea and the different maritime zones that exist in the law of the sea; discusses piracy; and examines a number of selected issues relating to the conservation of marine life. The final section provides a short introduction to dispute settlement in the law of the sea.

Chapter

Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

10. Law of the Sea  

The law of the sea is of great importance to the world community as reflected in the wealth of treaty law, customary law and judicial decisions concerning this subject. The most important of all is the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention 1982, which entered into force on 16 November 1994. This chapter discusses the rules governing the territorial sea and the contiguous zone; the continental shelf; the exclusive economic zone; the high seas; the deep seabed; and peaceful settlement of disputes.

Chapter

Cover International Law

8. The international law of the sea  

The international law of the sea is one of the oldest disciplines of public international law. In fact, the identification and application of principles for governing the roughly 70 per cent of the earth’s surface that consists of water has been a topic of interest for centuries. This chapter deals with the main principles and rules that make up the international legal regulation of the seas. It begins by discussing the most important legal sources in the law of the sea, including the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention. It then discusses the spatial partitioning of the sea and the different maritime zones that exist in the law of the sea; discusses piracy; and examines a number of selected issues relating to the conservation of marine life. The final section provides a short introduction to dispute settlement in the law of the sea.

Chapter

Cover International Law

9. Immunities  

This chapter explores the concept of immunities. Immunity from jurisdiction describes the doctrines developed in domestic courts over time to avoid infringements on State sovereignty whenever possible. Generally speaking, immunities seek to prevent foreign courts from exercising jurisdiction regarding the conduct of another State, its agents, officials, or diplomatic representatives, as well as from adjudicating on inter-State disputes without their consent. Due in part to the historical conflation of State and sovereign that defined the scope of immunity, several mechanisms have been developed that allow various categories of officials of States to invoke immunity in the courts of another State. Often an exemption from local jurisdiction exists in relation to mundane violations such as driving offences or administrative matters. However, exemption from jurisdiction has important policy implications if the act in question constitutes an international crime.