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Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

29. Policing and the police  

Trevor Jones, Tim Newburn, and Robert Reiner

In this chapter we review some of the key themes in scholarly work on policing, one of the major sub-fields within criminology. The focus is primarily upon the United Kingdom though many of the themes are familiar across all western democracies. We begin by considering what is meant by ‘policing’, before outlining the emergence of this field of academic research. The chapter then examines the development of modern policing, and the challenges of establishing and maintaining police legitimacy. This leads into a discussion of a series of key themes in policing research, including the operation and control of police discretion, occupational cultures, matters relating to diversity and discrimination, and the politics and governance of the police. The next section outlines distinctive policing ‘models’ that have emerged in recent times. The policing landscape is increasingly complex and the chapter concludes by considering two of the most significant developments: pluralization and transnationalization.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

34. Policing and the police  

Trevor Jones, Tim Newburn, and Robert Reiner

This chapter reviews some of the key themes in academic research and writing on the police and policing. It begins by discussing definitions of ‘policing’ and ‘police’, before outlining the development of academic research on policing in the USA and UK. The nature of police discretion is then discussed along with the factors that shape police decision-making and the implications of these for the accountability of policing agents and organizations. The next section reviews contrasting models of policing that have emerged over recent years, including community policing, problem-oriented policing, ‘zero tolerance’ policing and intelligence-led policing. Subsequently, two overarching developments within contemporary policing—pluralization (with a particular focus on private security) and internationalization—are explored. The chapter concludes with some reflections on the future of police and policing. The primary focus is upon policing in Britain, though many of the themes are similar across liberal democratic societies.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

27. Crime control  

This chapter reflects on the crime control approach. Criminologists and criminal justice practitioners who adopt this standpoint accept that crime is inevitable; but they are also committed to minimising its effects, either by restricting opportunities to offend or by acting decisively where crimes are committed. Crime control and retributive interventions may well coincide, despite their differing motivations, for example in the case of imprisonment. But crime control also extends well beyond deterrent sanctions to include other measures geared towards the assessment and management of potential risks, target hardening, proactive policing, offender surveillance, and restrictions. The chapter then looks at the role of the police in crime control including zero tolerance, intelligence-led policing, and community policing as well as the role of other agencies, such as architects, the community, private security providers, and the judiciary. It considers how predictive tools might be used to minimise the risk of reoffending and assesses some of the impacts and outcomes of crime control strategies.