1-9 of 9 Results  for:

  • Keyword: inequalities x
  • Criminology x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

9. Feminist criminology: inequalities, powerlessness, and justice  

Michele Burman and Loraine Gelsthorpe

This chapter addresses complexities and continuing concerns in thinking about feminist perspectives and contributions to criminology. The chapter charts feminist contributions to criminology over time, dwelling on the paradigmatic shifts in criminology in both substantive and epistemological and methodological terms, extending both the terrain of criminological theorizing and understanding of knowledge forms. The notion of feminist criminology as a transitional phase towards a more humanistic stance in relation to crime and justice in a globalized context is also explored. The chapter considers synergies between feminist contributions and other work which has focused on inequalities before the law and addresses the issue of migrant offenders and victims, criminal behaviour, and criminal justice, as well as victims of human trafficking, these being examples of the problematic dichotomy between victims and offenders.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

17. Feminist criminology: Inequalities, powerlessness, and justice  

Michele Burman and Loraine Gelsthorpe

This chapter addresses complexities and continuing concerns in thinking about feminist perspectives and contributions to criminology. It charts feminist contributions to criminology over time, dwelling on paradigmatic shifts in substantive, epistemological, and methodological terms, and the ways in which feminism has transformed criminological research and practice. The chapter explores contemporary feminist research agendas focused on issues of powerlessness, justice, and inequality, addressing research on violence against women, digital technology, human trafficking, migration, and criminal justice. The notion of feminist criminology as a transitional phase towards a more humanistic stance in relation to crime and justice in a globalized context is also explored.

Chapter

Cover Criminology

14. Economic marginalization, social exclusion, and crime  

Chris Hale

This chapter considers the debates surrounding the relationships between economic conditions and crime. It examines the links between poverty, inequality, and crime, and discusses concepts such as the underclass and social exclusion. For many, integrating people into work is central to combating social exclusion. At the centre of this debate lie not only matters of power and inequality, but also the need to question the nature of paid work and the position it takes within capitalist society.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

15. Ethnicities, racism, crime, and criminal justice  

Coretta Phillips, Ben Bowling, and Alpa Parmar

Offending, victimization, policing, the work of the courts, and imprisonment are patterned by differences between different ethnic groups. This chapter explores these long-standing patterns and critically examines the reasons for the often uneasy and conflictual relationship between minority ethnic groups and agents of the criminal justice system. It also interrogates new manifestations of ethnic patterns in crime and the administration of justice, particularly those linked to the global issues of controlling migration and terrorism. Finally, the chapter considers how criminological scholarship has developed in this subfield of race, ethnicity, and crime.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

23. Social harm and zemiology  

Victoria Canning, Paddy Hillyard, and Steve Tombs

Over the past two decades, Zemiology—the study of social harm—has proliferated internationally. Many scholars and activists alike have come to recognize the limitations of state-centric definitions of crime and shed light instead on many forms of harm which often go unseen and undocumented, and yet can be more far reaching and devastating in impact. This chapter therefore introduces the foundations of the epistemological shift to social harm studies, and the development of Zemiology. It goes on to outline typologies and dimensions of harm and highlights the avoidable and preventable nature of many such harms. Finally, the chapter concludes by considering the centrality of action-oriented research and activism in addressing, mitigating and ultimately preventing the endemic nature of such harms going forward.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

8. Drug use, drug problems, drug control: A political economy perspective  

Toby Seddon and Alex Stevens

This chapter presents an overview of the phenomenon of illicit drugs and their control. We show that drugs are not just a matter of crime, morality, or health but rather are also a global commodity the use and control of which continue to run along lines shaped by inequalities of geography, wealth and power. Viewing the drug problem through the lens of political economy, and in global and historical perspective, provides a clearer view of the issue. It allows us to see how some facets of the problem are exaggerated (e.g. crime and health harms) whilst others are under-stated (e.g. pleasure, harms to producer countries in the Global South). It also sheds new light on why some policy approaches and interventions continue to fail and why others may be more promising. Lastly, the prospects for radical alternatives to prohibition through drug law reform are considered.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

8. Ethnicities, racism, crime, and criminal justice  

Coretta Phillips and Ben Bowling

Offending, victimization, policing, the work of the courts, and imprisonment are patterned by differences between different ethnic groups. This chapter explores these long-standing patterns and critically examines the reasons for the often uneasy and conflictual relationship between minority ethnic groups and agents of the criminal justice system. It also interrogates new manifestations of ethnic patterns in crime and the administration of justice, particularly those linked to the global issues of controlling migration and terrorism. Finally, the chapter considers how criminological scholarship has developed in this subfield of race, ethnicity, and crime.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

14. Demystifying hate crime in an age of crises  

Neil Chakraborti and Amy Clarke

This chapter examines the extent of hate crimes in the age of crises. It acknowledges how the concept of hate crime is notoriously complex and contested. The continued rise of hate incidents paints a worrying picture of seemingly legitimized hostile and prejudiced attitudes rooted within wider structural inequalities. Even though ne and physical hostility is normalized, legitimized, and politically weaponized, there is a deafening silence from national governments when it comes to addressing the underlying causes of hate crime. The chapter considers the complex realities of perpetration and victimization in an effort to improve responses to hate crime in times of increasing fragility and uncertainty.

Chapter

Cover The Politics of the Police

6. A fair cop? Policing and social justice  

Benjamin Bowling, Robert Reiner, and James Sheptycki

This chapter examines fairness in policing with reference to issues of race and gender. It first defines the terms of debate—justice, fairness, discrimination—then considers individual, cultural, institutional, and structural theories and applies these to various aspects of policing. It considers the histories of police discrimination in relation to the policing of poverty, chattel slavery, racial segregation, colonialism, religious conflict, and ethnic minority communities, to understand their contemporary legacy. The chapter then examines spheres of police activity where allegations of unfairness and discrimination are particularly salient, including the response to women crime victims of rape and domestic violence, the use of ‘racial profiling’ in stop and search powers, and the use of deadly force. It examines the experiences of people from ethnic minorities, women, gay men, and lesbians within police forces. Through an exploration of the historical and contemporary literature, the chapter draws conclusions on whether or not the police act fairly in democratic societies.