1-20 of 46 Results  for:

  • Keyword: executive x
  • Constitutional & Administrative x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Public Law

8. Introduction to Executive Functions  

This chapter provides an overview of the themes covered in Part II of the book, consisting of Chapters 8-11. It addresses the following questions: What is executive function? What is the role of a constitution in relation to executive functions? It then summarizes the basic constitutional and legal aspects of the various executive bodies considered in Chapter.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

9. Government and Accountability  

This chapter examines the people and processes that comprise government in the UK. It considers the constitutional and legal status and role of the monarchy, ministers, civil servants, as well as holders of appointed public offices. It then turns to one of the central features of a good constitution, namely that it provides opportunities for those who exercise public power to be ‘held to account’ or ‘accountable’ for their decisions and conduct.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

21. Institutions of the European Union  

This chapter introduces the project of European integration and discusses the legal basis of the EU, which consists of treaties that authorize law-making. It will identify the principal executive institutions of the European Union and their functions. They will be classified under the headings of supranationalism and intergovernmentalism. The chapter will also examine the process of enacting legislation and the role of the European Parliament. Drawing on an understanding of similar institutions and processes in the UK, the discussion is particularly concerned with an assessment of the institutions in terms of public law values, such as legitimacy, accountability, and transparency.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

5. Separating and Balancing Powers  

This chapter examines the division of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. It considers the debate as to whether, why, and how separation of powers should occur in the UK’s constitutional system. Political constitutionalists tend to downplay the role of courts, while legal constitutionalists tend to be keen on using the idea of separation of powers to bolster the importance of the courts as a major ‘check and balance’ on the institutions that carry out the other two functions (legislative and executive). The discussions also cover the separation of power between the Crown and Parliament; judicial analysis of separation of powers; and interactions between Parliament, the executive, and judges. The ‘Westminster model’ is also explored.

Book

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law
Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the most influential, landmark cases in public law. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Thomas Webb, including the wider questions raised by the decision for you to consider.

Book

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law
Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. Essential Cases provides you with succinct summaries of some of the landmark and most influential cases in public law. Each summary begins with a review of the main case facts and decision. The summary is then concluded with expert commentary on the case from the author, Thomas Webb, including his assessment of the wider questions raised by the decision for you to consider.

Book

Cover Public Law

Mark Elliott and Robert Thomas

Public Law is an advanced text that comprehensively covers the key topics in the field of public law. The book presents an analysis of the law and institutions of public law, and places the legal issues within the wider socio-political context within which the constitution operates. Three key themes that permeate the content allow readers to approach the subject in a structured way. The key themes are the significance of executive power in the contemporary constitution and the challenge of ensuring that those who wield it are held to account, the shift in recent times from a political to a more legal constitution and the implications of this change, and the increasingly ‘multilayered’ character of the British constitution.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

11. Case Study: Deployment of British Armed Forces Abroad  

This chapter contains a case study: deployment of British armed forces abroad. Theimportant decision to deploy forces abroad is taken by the executive relying on its prerogative power. In the past, such decisions were taken with minimal parliamentary oversight. A constitutional convention may have developed that Parliament should debate and approve deployments, but the scope of this convention is not settled. Parliamentary committees of both houses of Parliament and others have pressed for reforms designed to ensure that Parliament has a greater influence. This chapter explores the issues involved and reasons why reform has proved so difficult to achieve.

Book

Cover Complete Public Law
Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. Complete Public Law combines clear explanatory text and practical learning features with extracts from a wide range of primary and secondary materials. The book has been structured with the needs of undergraduate courses in mind. Opening with consideration of basic constitutional principles (in which no previous knowledge is assumed), the chapters move on to cover all other essential areas, before closing with consideration of the principles and procedures of judicial review. This edition includes substantial updates to address the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union and the constitutional implications these new arrangements have, including in the context of devolution.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

7. Introduction to Executive Functions  

This chapter provides an overview of the themes covered in Part II of the book, consisting of Chapters 8–10. It addresses the following questions: What is the executive function? Broadly, this can be defined as the powers of government to decide issues of policy, to raise and spend public money, and to implement decisions. What is the role of a constitution in relation to executive functions? Generally, we can say that constitutions have a dual role: they enable executive action (by providing institutional and procedural frameworks for decision-making) and they also constrain it (to ensure that it stays within what is permitted by law and to make governments accountable for their actions). It then summarizes the basic constitutional and legal aspects of the various executive bodies considered in the Chapter.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

2. The institutions of government and the separation of powers  

This chapter explores the key institutions—the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary—and considers the relevance of the principle of the separation of powers in respect of the UK Constitution. It begins with a discussion of the functions fulfilled by these institutions, including an examination of their structure and key roles, allowing fuller exploration of the separation of powers doctrine in the UK Constitution. The chapter identifies a common distinction drawn between what is known as the pure and partial separation of powers: The former favours total separation, while the latter allows a degree of overlap to the point of ensuring a system of checks and balances. Application of this distinction enables broader exploration of the UK’s application of the separation of powers doctrine.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

8. Government of the United Kingdom  

This chapter examines the people and processes that comprise government in the UK. It considers the constitutional and legal status and role of the monarchy (the King), ministers (the Prime Minister, Secretaries of State, and other ministers), civil servants (politically neutral officials responsible for supporting ministers to implement policies), as well as holders of appointed public offices (such as regulatory bodies that operate independently of ministers). A key question is where does government get its legal power from (legality)? In general terms, those who govern have such powers as are conferred by Acts of Parliament, prerogative powers (in the case of some ministers and the King), and the common law. Another key question is about legitimacy: government bodies must implicitly or expressly make a claim that their powers to govern ought to be accepted, and that claim must be accepted by most of the people most of the time.

Chapter

Cover The Changing Constitution

7. The Executive in Public Law  

Thomas Poole

This chapter focuses on the executive, the branch of government responsible for initiating and implementing the laws and for acting where necessary to secure the interests of the state. We trace its development out of a medieval model of government structured around the king and his court, to a modern world of offices exercising executive functions, grouped under the legacy term ‘the Crown’. The resulting institutions display a complicated pattern of law and custom, and legal concepts and principles relate to them often in convoluted ways. Our analysis focuses on how executive power is normally understood from the legal point of view—deriving from an authorizing statute via rules made within a government department to eventual application by subordinate officials or agents—and traces some of the ways the courts monitor that process. But we also examine the executive’s non-statutory or ‘prerogative’ powers, the two main compartments of which are treated separately, as the general executive powers and the general administrative powers of the Crown respectively.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R (on the application of Miller and Cherry) v Prime Minister and Advocate General for Scotland [2019] UKSC 41, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case note summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of Miller and Cherry) v Prime Minister and Advocate General for Scotland [2019] UKSC 41, Supreme Court. This case concerned the constitutional-legal limits on a Prime Minister’s capacity to advise the monarch to exercise their power to prorogue Parliament. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

M v Home Office [1994] 1 AC 377, House of Lords (also known as Re M)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in M v Home Office [1994] 1 AC 377, House of Lords (also known as Re M). The case considered whether the courts had the power to issue injunctions against government departments and the ministers attached to them, and whether the rule of law required that those departments and ministers could be held in contempt of court for breach of court orders. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

R (on the application of Miller and Cherry) v Prime Minister and Advocate General for Scotland [2019] UKSC 41, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case note summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of Miller and Cherry) v Prime Minister and Advocate General for Scotland [2019] UKSC 41, Supreme Court. This case concerned the constitutional-legal limits on a Prime Minister’s capacity to advise the monarch to exercise their power to prorogue Parliament. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Public Law

M v Home Office [1994] 1 AC 377, House of Lords (also known as Re M)  

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in M v Home Office [1994] 1 AC 377, House of Lords (also known as Re M). The case considered whether the courts had the power to issue injunctions against government departments and the ministers attached to them, and whether the rule of law required that those departments and ministers could be held in contempt of court for breach of court orders. The document also includes supporting commentary and questions from author Thomas Webb.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

16. Ombudsmen and Complaints  

This chapter examines systems for handling complaints against public bodies. It focuses particularly upon public sector ombudsmen while locating ombudsmen within the wider complaint-handling landscape. Public sector ombudsmen constitute an important mechanism by which the executive (and other public bodies) can be held to account. The relationship between ombudsmen and other accountability mechanisms, together with questions concerning the legal enforceability of ombudsmen’s findings, raise important issues about legal and political forms of constitutionalism. The multilayered nature of the UK’s constitution post-devolution has resulted in a diversity of ombudsman schemes and poses particular challenges in relation to the rationalisation of ombudsmen in England.

Chapter

Cover Complete Public Law

11. Executive Power and Accountability  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter examines the nature and extent of the power that the executive uses to run the country and begins by defining executive power, and by explaining where it is derived and who may exercise it. It then discusses the mechanisms by which an executive can be called to account for its exercise of power; the extent to which Parliament may hold the government accountable; and the extent that courts may hold the government accountable.

Chapter

Cover Complete Public Law

12. Responsible Government and Constitutional Conventions  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter discusses the nature and extent of constitutional conventions, which are political rules that are binding upon those to whom they apply. They apply to the relationships between the Crown, Parliament, the judiciary, the civil service, and the executive, and play a key role in limiting the powers granted to institutions of government by unwritten rules or sources. Constitutional conventions also regulate key parts of the relationship between the institutions of government. The doctrine of ministerial responsibility is one of the most important examples of constitutional conventions regulating the behaviour of the executive. There are two main branches of ministerial responsibility. One is individual ministerial responsibility—that is, a minister’s obligation to account to Parliament for his or her words and actions and for those of his or her civil servants. The second branch of ministerial responsibility is collective ministerial responsibility. Amongst other things, collective ministerial responsibility prescribes that decisions reached by the Cabinet or other ministerial committees are binding on all members of the government, regardless of whether or not the individual ministers agree with them.