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Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

27. Competition Law: Article 101  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. EU competition law covers anti-competitive agreements between firms, abuse of a dominant position, and mergers. Article 101 TFEU is the principal vehicle for the control of anti-competitive agreements. This chapter examines its key features. These include: the meaning given to the terms agreement and concerted practice; the relationship between Article 101(1) and (3); the extent to which economic analysis does and should take place within Article 101(1); and the interpretation accorded to Article 101(3), including whether non-economic factors can be taken into account. The discussion then shifts to more detailed examination of vertical agreements, followed by an outline of the reform of the enforcement regime for Articles 101 and 102. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU competition law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

27. Competition Law: Article 101  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. EU competition law covers anti-competitive agreements between firms, abuse of a dominant position, and mergers. Article 101 TFEU is the principal vehicle for the control of anti-competitive agreements. This chapter examines its key features. These include: the meaning given to the terms agreement and concerted practice; the relationship between Article 101(1) and (3); the extent to which economic analysis does and should take place within Article 101(1); and the interpretation accorded to Article 101(3), including whether non-economic factors can be taken into account. The discussion then shifts to more detailed examination of vertical agreements, followed by an outline of the reform of the enforcement regime for Articles 101 and 102. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU competition law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

6. The effects of EU law in the national legal systems  

Michal Bobek

This chapter examines how EU law interacts with national legal systems. It first explains the default rules for the national application of EU law. It then focuses on three key principles: direct effect, indirect effect, and primacy. It considers requirements formulated with respect to procedures for the national enforcement of EU law and state liability for breaches of EU law. The chapter concludes with a case study, which illustrates the interplay between the rules and principles introduced in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

9. State Liability  

This chapter outlines the development of the state liability doctrine under European Union (EU) law following the Francovich v Italy case. It explains that the principle of state liability provides individuals with a tool before their national courts to secure the enforcement of their rights under EU law. The chapter examines the scope and the conditions for liability; the criterion of a ‘sufficiently serious’ breach laid down in subsequent cases such as Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame and considers that there may be many hurdles to overcome in establishing a successful claim. It analyses its relationship with other Treaty provisions dealing with non-contractual liability.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

9. State liability  

This chapter outlines the development of the state liability doctrine under European Union (EU) law following the Francovich v Italy case. It explains that the principle of state liability provides individuals with a tool before their national courts to secure the enforcement of their rights under EU law. The chapter examines the scope and the conditions for liability; the criterion of a ‘sufficiently serious’ breach laid down in subsequent cases such as Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame and considers that there may be many hurdles to overcome in establishing a successful claim. It analyses its relationship with other Treaty provisions dealing with non-contractual liability.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

4. International issues and the globalization of competition law  

This chapter draws a distinction between public, institutional enforcement of competition law, which may raise issues of public international law, and private actions before national courts. The coexistence of competition law regimes around the world means that companies that trade internationally may find themselves subject to the law of a ‘foreign’ state. While in the US the effects doctrine is relied on to assert jurisdiction, in the EU there has been no explicit adoption of the effects doctrine. Instead, the EU relies upon an ‘implementation’ doctrine. Under principles of comity a state may recognize the interests of another state when applying its competition law. Multilateral initiatives have been taken to try to resolve difficulties, but there is at present no single global agreement on competition law.

Book

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

Brenda Sufrin, Niamh Dunne, and Alison Jones

EU Competition Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete guide to European competition law in a single authoritative volume. Carefully selected extracts from key cases, academic articles, and statutory materials are accompanied by in-depth author commentary from three experienced academics in the field. Thorough footnoting and referencing give a tour of the available literature, making this an ideal text and stand-alone resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for competition law scholars engaged in specialised study. This eighth edition has been fully updated with detailed coverage and commentary on recent developments. These include contemporary concerns about the objectives, interpretation, and application of competition law in the light of sustainability imperatives including the EU’s Green Deal, worldwide economic and political upheaval stemming in particular from the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine, and continuing developments in the digital economy; the EU Courts’ judgments on Articles 101, 102, and mergers including Intel (RENV), Google and Alphabet, Google (Android), Slovak Telekom, Generics, Lundbeck, and CK Telecoms; cases on the Commission’s enforcement powers and judicial review, including Sped-Pro and Slovak Telekom; new legislation, guidelines, and notices (in final form or draft) on vertical agreements, horizontal agreements, and market definition; Commission actions in the pharmaceutical, energy, and financial sectors, including interaction with regulatory rules, liberalisation programmes, and intellectual property law; private litigation in the wake of the directive on damages, including the Court’s judgments in Sumal and Paccar; and thorough discussion of ongoing developments in competition law such as the Commission’s enforcement policy against cartels, the appraisal of mergers, the use of commitments decisions, the use of comfort letters during Covid-19 and the Commission’s revised notice on informal guidance, and the increasing activity by national competition authorities. The eighth edition contains an entirely new chapter on the digital economy, including detailed coverage of the Digital Markets Act.

Book

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

Alison Jones, Brenda Sufrin, and Niamh Dunne

EU Competition Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete guide to European competition law in a single authoritative volume. Carefully selected extracts from key cases, academic articles, and statutory materials are accompanied by in-depth author commentary from three experienced academics in the field. Thorough footnoting and referencing give a tour of the available literature, making this an ideal text and stand-alone resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for competition law scholars engaged in specialized study. This seventh edition has been fully updated with detailed coverage and commentary on recent developments. These include the EU Courts’ judgments on Articles 101, 102 and 106 including Intel; cases on the Commission’s enforcement powers and judicial review; new legislation and guidelines on technology transfer; the revised de minimis notice; Commission actions in the digital economy, including the Google case; the directive on damages; and thorough discussion of ongoing developments in competition law such as the Commission's enforcement policy against cartels, the appraisal of mergers, the use of commitments decisions and the compatibility of EU competition procedures with human rights provisions.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

14. Private Enforcement  

This chapter focuses on the private civil enforcement of EU antitrust rules through claims made by private litigants in the national courts and tribunals of the individual Member States. The discussions cover the principle of direct effect and national procedural autonomy, mechanisms for cooperation between the Commission and national courts, the obligations of national courts when dealing with cases that raise the issue of whether a contract in violation of Article 101 or Article 102 is enforceable and whether, and if so when, damages and injunctions should be available to remedy such violations. It also considers wy historically there was relatively little antitrust litigation in the EU; the relationship between public and private enforcement; the Commission's policy towards private enforcement, the package of measures the Commission has taken to encourage private litigation, especially the 2014 Damages Directive and its likely impact.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

7. Framework for Enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law, especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

6. The effects of EU law in the national legal systems  

Michal Bobek

This chapter examines how EU law interacts with national legal systems. It starts by setting out the scope of application of EU law in the national legal system, when applied by national courts and administrative authorities. It explains the default rules for such national application of EU law: the principles of equivalence and effectiveness, as well as effective judicial protection of EU law based rights within the national legal systems. It then focuses on three key principles: direct effect, indirect effect, and primacy. It considers requirements formulated with respect to state liability for breaches of EU law. The chapter concludes with a case study, which illustrates the interplay between the rules and principles introduced in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

26. Introduction to EU competition policy  

This chapter examines the competition policy in the European Union (EU), discusses the economics of the social market, and describes the structure and objectives of EU competition provisions and policy. The chapter focuses on Articles 101 and 102 TFEU and covers the basic principles established by Regulation 1/2003. It highlights the decentralisation of the enforcement of competition policy. It also explores policies on competition with third countries. The chapter highlights the complexities that can arise when law and economics interact and reveals the difficult role of the Court of Justice (CJ) to make complex assessments of economics.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

7. Framework for enforcement  

This chapter outlines the framework for enforcement of European Union (EU) law, and describes the various actions that may be brought before the Court of Justice (CJ). In interpreting the relevant provisions of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the CJ has played a key role in the enforcement of EU law especially with its insistence on the effective protection of individuals’ Union rights. The chapter also explains the significance of judicial review in the EU legal order by focusing on the jurisdiction of the CJ in the appeal cases originating from the General Court (GC). Finally, the chapter outlines how questions of infringement of EU law can also be raised in the national legal system.

Book

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK
Competition Law of the EU in the UK provides an introduction to the field of competition law and relates it to the situation of the UK within the EU. It starts by looking at competition law in the EU and UK. It considers international issues and the globalization of competition law. In addition, it looks at procedure in terms of investigation, penalties, leniency, and private enforcement. It considers article 101 TFEU. It also explains the economics of merger control, looking at both the EU and UK merger control regime and the treatment of joint ventures. Finally, it considers state aid, the relationship between competition law and intellectual property and the common law and competition.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

8. Public enforcement of EU law (Articles 258–260 TFEU); review of legality and damages (Articles 263, 265, 268, 277 and 340(2) TFEU)  

This chapter focuses on direct actions before the Court of Justice. It is divided into two sections. Section I deals with direct actions relating to public enforcement of EU law between the Commission and Member States (Article 258 TFEU) and between Member States (Article 259 TFEU). The financial consequences of failure to remedy infringements are also covered (Article 260 TFEU). Section II deals with actions challenging the legality of binding institutional acts (action for annulment, Article 263 TFEU); action for failure to act (Article 265 TFEU); and the plea of illegality (Article 277 TFEU). It briefly examines the action for damages against EU institutions (Articles 268 and 340(2) TFEU), a Treaty-based action from which parallels can be drawn to the evolution of state liability, through the Court’s case law.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

13. The economics of monopoly abuse  

This chapter considers the economics of monopoly abuse. A monopolist is a firm which is the sole supplier in a relevant market. Monopolists are able to determine the market price. This will be higher than the competitive price, with the quantity supplied being lower. This situation leads to a loss of welfare to society as a whole, and also a redistribution of income from some of the monopolist’s customers to the monopolist. The monopolist may also engage in wasteful strategic behaviour to protect its privileged position. In both the EU and UK regimes, competition enforcement is largely complaint driven. This forces the courts, and therefore economists as expert witnesses, to consider the (anti-)competitive impact of short-run activity that might be expected to have little in the way of long-run repercussions.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

7. Procedure: complaints and third-party rights  

This chapter focuses on the rights of those wishing to take action against an infringement of competition law, potentially with a view to being compensated for the harm they may have suffered. One option is going to the relevant competition authority and filing a complaint to trigger the public enforcement route, saving the cost of litigation. The other option is to seek competition law enforcement in private claims before the courts. Claimants may seek damages or other remedies, including injunctions. In the UK, damages may be sought before the Competition Appeals Tribunal (CAT) and before the national courts. Collective claims can only be brought before the CAT. The number of private actions is increasing, and efforts have been made both by the EU and UK legislators to encourage more private litigation.

Chapter

Cover Jones & Sufrin's EU Competition Law

2. The Competition Law and Institutions of the European Union  

This chapter sketches the history and functions of the EU and its institutions in order to set the EU competition rules in context. It then describes the competition provisions themselves and outlines the way in which the rules are applied and enforced, including the public enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 under Regulation 1/2003, the control of mergers with a European dimension under Regulation 139/2004, public enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and the role of private enforcement. It discusses the position and powers of the European Commission, particularly the role of the Competition Directorate General (DG Comp); the powers of the EU Courts; the significance of fundamental rights and the general principles of EU law in competition cases; the application of competition rules to particular sectors of the economy; and the application of the EU rules to the EEA.