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Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

24. Freedom from Discrimination  

This chapter examines the protection of the freedom of discrimination in the European Convention on Human Rights, discusses the provisions of Article 14 and Protocol 12, and explains the issues to consider in evaluating allegations of violations of Article 14. It highlights the problems in the application of Article 14 and suggests that the range of ratifications to Protocol 12 does not suggest that the development of a generic equality law under the Convention is foreseeable. The chapter also analyses the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in relation to Article 14 and Protocol 12. It notes the development of indirect discrimination and the Court’s increasing use of ‘stereotyping’, intersectionality, and vulnerability in its judgments.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

11. Equality and non-discrimination  

This chapter examines equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. It discusses the provisions of human rights laws, conventions, and declarations, and emerging grounds of discrimination will also be considered. As human rights are focused on the individual, it is perhaps not surprising that there are many people who are disadvantaged or marginalized in the enjoyment of their rights and freedoms due to the intersecting of two or more grounds of discrimination. The chapter suggests that there is a link between the concepts of equality and that of non-discrimination, and that the rule of non-discrimination is basically the negative restatement of the principle of equality.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

11. Freedom from Discrimination (Article 14)  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the law on discrimination. It discusses the influence of European law on English discrimination law; English law relating to discrimination; positive discrimination; and enforcement and remedies under the Equality Act 2010.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

15. Equality before the law—the right to a fair trial  

This chapter discusses the right to be recognized as a person before the law; the equality of persons before the law; the prohibition on retroactive penal legislation; the position of courts under the law; the presumption of innocence; and those rights that accrue primarily to accused persons. It argues that the right to equality before the law is one of the major embodiments of the freedom from discrimination advocated by the United Nations. The right to a fair trial and the equality of arms of parties to a legal dispute are fundamental to the operation of the rule of law.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

29. Terrorism  

Martin Scheinin

This chapter first addresses the question of whether terrorism constitutes a violation of human rights, or whether the notion of human rights violations can only be applied to action by states, and then considers challenges to the applicability of human rights law in the fight against terrorism, particularly since 9/11. It focuses on the notion of terrorism, and in particular the risks posed to human rights protection by vague or over-inclusive definitions of terrorism. The main section of the chapter deals with some of the major challenges posed by counter-terrorism measures to substantive human rights protections. It is argued that the unprecedented post-9/11 wave of counter-terrorism laws and measures that infringed upon human rights was a unique situation, and that governments and intergovernmental organizations are realizing that full compliance with human rights in the fight against terrorism is not only morally and legally correct but is also the most effective way of combating terrorism in the long term.