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Book

Cover Contract Law Directions

Richard Taylor and Damian Taylor

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers at undergraduate level through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Contract Law Directions is a comprehensive guide, now in its eighth edition, to all aspects of contract law. It is structured in four parts. Part 1 looks at the creation of obligations. It considers agreement, intention to create legal regulations, and consideration and estoppel. Part 2 is about contents and borders and looks at positive terms, exemption clauses, and misrepresentation. Part 3 examines defects in terms of mistake, duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains. The final part explains finishing and enforcing obligations. It analyses frustration, damages, specific remedies, and privity and the interests of third parties.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

18. Specific Remedies  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This Chapter considers specific remedies for breach of contract. Under certain circumstances, a contractual promise may be enforced directly. This may be by an action for the agreed sum, by an order for specific performance of the obligation, or by an injunction to restrain the breach of a negative stipulation in a contract or to require the defendant to take positive steps to undo a breach of contract. These remedies have different historical roots, the claim for an agreed sum being, like damages, a common law remedy whereas specific performance and injunctions are equitable remedies that were once exclusively administered by the Court of Chancery.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

19. Restitutionary Awards  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This Chapter considers restitutionary remedies for breach of contract. It discusses the recovery of money paid, restitution in respect of services or goods, and an account of profits or damages measured by benefit to contract-breaker.

Book

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract
Driven by exposition of the leading cases, JC Smith’s The Law of Contract offers the perfect balance between accessibility and authority. The strong focus on cases guides the reader through the intricacies of contract law with expert analysis ensuring key points are clear. The text begins with an introduction to contractual rights and duties. It looks at objectivity in contract law, the formation of bilateral and unilateral contracts, contract as agreement, offeror and offeree, estoppel, legal relations, and the role of third parties. It also considers the terms of the contract, interpretation of the contract, implication and rectification, and exclusion clauses and unfair terms. It goes on to look at issues such as duress, undue influence, good faith, capacity, illegality, contractual assumptions, breach of contract, remedies and damages, and remedies beyond compensatory damages.

Book

Cover Contract Law
Contract Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete guide to the subject of contract law. The book comprises a balance of 60 per cent text to 40 per cent cases and materials. Its clear explanations and analyses of the law provide support to students, while the extracts from cases and materials promote the development of essential case reading skills and allow for a more detailed appreciation of the practical workings of the law and of the best legal scholarship. Part I of the book examines the rules relating to the existence of an agreement (particularly offer and acceptance, uncertain and incomplete agreements, and consideration and promissory estoppel). Part II covers the terms of the contract, including implied terms, interpretation, boilerplate clauses, exclusion clauses, unfair terms in consumer contracts, and good faith. Part III examines topics such as mistake, misrepresentation, duress, undue influence, unconscionability, inequality of bargaining power, and frustration and force majeure. Part IV turns to breaches of contract and termination, damages, and specific performance. The last part, Part V, concentrates on third parties.

Book

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract
Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins’ Law of Contract provides a clear, academically rigorous, account of the contract law which is written in a style which makes it highly accessible to university students new to legal study. It works from extensive consideration of the significant cases, to provide students with a firm grounding in the way the common law functions. There are chapters on formation, certainty, consideration, promissory estoppel, intention to create legal relations, express and implied terms, classification of terms, exemption clauses, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, unfair terms in consumer contracts, mistake, misrepresentation, duress and undue influence, illegality, unconscionability, privity, performance and breach, frustration, damages, and specific enforcement, as well as companion website chapters on capacity and an outline of the law of restitution. Recent cases which are of particular note in this, the tenth edition, include the Supreme Court cases of: Wells v Devani (2019) on interpretation and implied terms, Pakistan International Airlines Corporation v Times Travel (UK) Limited (2021) on lawful act economic duress, Morris- Garner v One-Step (Support) Ltd (2019) and Triple Point Technology Inc v PTT Public Company Ltd (2021) on the law of damages, and Tillman v Egon Zehnder (2019) on illegality and severance, re-affirmed in the Court of Appeal ruling in Quantum Actuarial LLP v Quantum Advisory Ltd (2021). Further important Court of Appeal decisions include: TRW v Panasonic (2021) on ‘battle of the forms’, Ark Shipping v Silverburn Shipping (2019) on classification of terms, FSHC Holdings v GLAS Trust (2019) on the equitable remedy of rectification, considered within the chapter on the doctrine of mistake, and Classic Maritime Inc v Limbungan Makmur (2019) on the interpretation of force majeure clauses and the scope of the doctrine of frustration, issues which rapidly elevated in significance leading up to Brexit and upon the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Notable first instance decisions which have tested frustration in light of these events include Canary Wharf (BP4) T1 Ltd and others v European Medicines Agency (2019) in the context of Brexit, and Salam Air SAOC v Latam Airlines Group SA (2020) on the impact of Covid-19. Additional High Court rulings considered within this edition include Sheikh Tahnoon Bin Saeed Bin Shakhboot Al Nehayan v Ioannis Kent (2018) and Bates v Post Office Ltd (2019) on good faith, and Neocleous v Rees (2019) on electronic signatures coupled with the findings of the Law Commission Report on Electronic Execution of Documents (2019) Law Com No 386.

Book

Cover Complete Contract Law
This book provides choice extracts, supported by clear commentary and useful learning features. The text starts with an introduction to contract law. Part I looks at creating the contract, with coverage of the offer, acceptance, the legal partnership, and consideration and promissory estoppel. Part II is about the content of the contract and performance. It looks at the terms of the contract, exemption clauses, and unfair terms and issues related to breach and termination of the contract. Part III is about enforcement of the contract. It considers compensatory damages following a breach as well as third-party rights and non-compensatory remedies. Part IV explains the facts that end a contract such as misrepresentation, duress, frustration, and mistake.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2019] AC 649; [2018] UKSC 20  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2018] UKSC 20. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2019] AC 649; [2018] UKSC 20  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2018] UKSC 20. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

20. Damages  

This chapter deals with the primary remedy for breach of contract: damages. It looks at the basic test, which allows for the recovery of expectation loss, and also considers recovery of reliance loss and a restitutionary sum. The assessment for, and availability of, negotiating damages as recently affirmed by the Supreme Court in One Step (Support) LTD v Morris-Garner and Another (2019) is explored. The further limitations on recovery such as remoteness and the ‘duty’ to mitigate are considered, as is the distinction between liquidated damages and penalty clauses. The problem of recovering for non-financial losses—mental distress and the consumer surplus—is also addressed. Finally, the chapter looks at how the rules on penalties have been relaxed with the landmark judgments in Cavendish and ParkingEye (2015).

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

11. Damages  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

11. Damages  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

Cover Cheshire, Fifoot, and Furmston's Law of Contract

21. Remedies for Breach of Contract  

M P Furmston

This chapter discusses remedies for breach of contract. It covers damages (remoteness of damage and measure of damages; mitigation; contributory negligence; liquidated damages and penalties; and deposits, part payments, and forfeitures), specific performance (specific performance a discretionary remedy; the principle of mutuality; and the remedy of injunction), and extinction of remedies (the statutory time limits; effect of defendant’s fraud; extension of time in case of disability; effect of acknowledgement or part payment; and effect of lapse of time on equitable claims).

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Watts & another v Morrow [1991] 1 WLR 1421  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Watts & another v Morrow [1991] 1 WLR 1421. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Watts & another v Morrow [1991] 1 WLR 1421  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Watts & another v Morrow [1991] 1 WLR 1421. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

16. Misrepresentation  

This chapter discusses misrepresentation in contract law. Misrepresentation is a statement of fact or law which is false, that induces a party to enter into the contract. A misrepresentation may be made by words or by conduct. All misrepresentations entitle the misrepresentee to rescind the contract. However, rescission will be barred where it is impossible to put the parties back into their original position; or where the misrepresentee has affirmed the contract; or where a long period of time has elapsed; or where a third party who has acquired rights for value in good faith would be disadvantaged by rescission. Damages are available at common law for the tort of deceit or for negligent misrepresentation. Most claims for damages are now made under section 2(1) of the Misrepresentation Act 1967.

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

28. Agreed remedies  

This chapter focusses on remedies agreed by the parties for breach of contract. Parties may wish to include a term in the contract which dictates what should happen in the event of breach of contract. If the term states that a certain amount of money should be paid upon breach, that term might be valid as a liquidated damages clause or unenforceable as a penalty. If the amount chosen is a genuine pre-estimate of loss, or is ‘commercially justified’, then it is likely to be valid. If the defaulting party had already paid money to the innocent party as a deposit, the innocent party may be able to forfeit that deposit. A term stipulating that specific performance or an injunction will be granted upon breach will not bind the court. However, the court may take into account such a term when deciding whether to exercise its equitable discretion.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

14. Damages for breach of contract  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Where there is breach of contract, the aggrieved party is entitled to the remedy of damages as of right. Contractual damages aim to compensate the claimant for losses suffered rather than punish the defendant. To achieve compensation the claimant is put in the position he would have been in if the contract had been properly performed and the breach had not occurred. In other words, the aim is to protect the expectation of performance (known as the ‘expectation interest’ or the ‘performance interest’). This may involve any difference in value between the promised and the actual performance, loss of profits, or reimbursing the claimant for any expenditure that had been wasted due to the breach. A claimant may not be fully compensated for his losses as a result of the remoteness rule, which limits recovery of losses and/or the duty to mitigate (minimize) loss. Damages may also be apportioned, in some circumstances, for the claimant’s own contributory negligence in contributing to his own loss. In general, non-pecuniary losses are not recoverable in a claim for breach of contract, but there are cases where a modest sum may be awarded for the disappointment resulting from not receiving the promised performance. The parties may include an agreed damages clause in their contract but in the event of breach only a liquidated damages clause will be enforceable; a penalty clause will not be enforceable beyond the claimant’s actual loss.