1-20 of 66 Results  for:

  • Keyword: copyright x
  • Intellectual Property x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

2. Copyright 1: history, rationale, and policy context  

This chapter considers the evolution of modern copyright law against the background of its historical development in the UK and the international and European legal frameworks within which UK copyright law has been set since the nineteenth century. It examines the rationale and justifications for copyright and identifies the general policy context within which law and policy has developed in the UK and the EU. It also highlights the rapid development of new technologies which has brought copyright reform to the forefront in recent times, the difficulties which this new environment presents for the copyright framework, and how the framework has developed to meet such challenges.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

3. Copyright 2: subject matter, first ownership, and term  

This chapter first examines the subject matter in which copyright subsists and the criteria for copyright protection as set out in the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988). This centres on the concept of the ‘protected work’ and makes use of a distinction between what are sometimes known as ‘author works’ (literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and film works) and ‘media works’ (typographical arrangements, sound recordings, broadcasts, and adaptations). It then considers the identification of the first owner of copyright when it comes into existence. It discusses the concept of joint authorship and ownership of copyright works when created in the course of employment. The final section discusses the duration of copyright.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

4. Copyright 3: economic rights and infringement  

This chapter considers the ‘economic rights’ the copyright owner enjoys while copyright protection endures. These are the rights that the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) calls ‘acts restricted by copyright’, which may be exploited by transferring them to others or licensing others to use them for a price. The chapter discusses the rights flowing from ownership of copyright and the international framework that underpins them, noting the influence upon UK law of a number of EU directives. It identifies the general principles pertaining to infringement of economic rights, before turning to the detailed rules on each economic right: to make copies; issue copies to the public; rent or lend commercially to the public; perform, show, or play in public; communication to the public; and make adaptations. It discusses authorisation of infringement (accessory liability) in relation to these economic rights, and finally considers secondary infringement of copyright.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

12. Limits on Exploitation  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter is concerned with the restrictions placed on the copyright owners’ ability to exploit and use their work. It first considers the various mechanisms that are used to regulate contracts between authors and entrepreneurs and then assesses the impact of competition law on the ability of copyright owners to exploit their works. It also looks at the ways in which copyright contracts are regulated with respect to users of copyright, along with the issue of orphan works. The chapter concludes by outlining the different controls that are imposed on collecting societies.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

5. Copyright 4: exceptions and limitations  

This chapter discusses exceptions and limitations to the rights of the copyright owner. Copyright law establishes many such exceptions and limitations, listed in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) as the ‘permitted acts’. These acts can be carried out in relation to the copyright work without the owner’s permission or, in some cases, can be performed subject to terms and conditions specified by the statute rather than by the copyright owner. The chapter discusses the influence of the international framework and EU directives on exceptions and limitations. It analyses the ‘permitted acts’ and discusses the freedoms afforded through them to users of protected works in the UK, and also briefly considers how far they may be set aside by contractual provision.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

29. Copyright Protection for Designs  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter deals with the conditions under which copyright law might protect designs as well as the limitations on the term of design protection. It first considers the subsistence of copyright in designs via two routes: either directly, by protecting the form and decoration of articles as artistic works (particularly sculptures, engravings, or works of artistic craftsmanship), or indirectly, by protecting the author of a preliminary document on which a design is based. It then discusses the limitation on protection afforded by design documents in section 51 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

7. Duration of Copyright  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the debate over the question of the appropriate period of protection that ought to be granted to copyright works, with emphasis on literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works as well as films and entrepreneurial works (sound recordings, broadcasts, and typographical arrangements of published editions). It begins by considering the provisions of the EU Term Directive with regards to the duration of protection for such works and then discusses a number of exceptions to the general rule that the duration of copyright works is life plus 70 years. It also analyses the so-called publication right provided to those who first publish works in which copyright has lapsed. The chapter concludes with an assessment of the optimal term of copyright protection.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

7. Rights akin to copyright: database right and performers’ rights  

This chapter considers two rights similar to copyright in many ways, in terms of both subject matter and the substantive contents of the rights: (1) the special or sui generis database right, which operates alongside the copyright in databases; and (2) performers’ rights. Both rights have been relatively recently introduced into the armoury of intellectual property law. The chapter gives an account of each of these rights, comparing them with copyright but also underlining the differences between the regimes, and the reasons behind these differences. The chapter considers relevant the relevant international and EU frameworks and also highlights the nature and importance of these rights.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

27. Grounds for Invalidity: Novelty, Individual Character, and Relative Grounds  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter explores the criteria that are applied to determine the validity of a design, whether a registered design in the UK or an unregistered design: the design must be ‘new’; the design must have ‘individual character’; the applicant or the right holder must be entitled to the protected design; and the design must not conflict with earlier relevant rights (including earlier design applications, copyright, trade mark rights, and rights relating to certain types of emblem). The factors to take into account to determine the novelty of a design, such as prior art, are also considered. The chapter concludes by looking at relative grounds for design invalidity.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

8. Infringement  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter considers the question of what amounts to copyright infringement, first by differentiating between ‘primary’ infringement and ‘secondary’ infringement. It then explains the three criteria used to determine whether copyright in a work has been infringed: whether the defendant carried out one of the activities that falls within the copyright owner’s rights; whether there is a causal link between the work used (that is, reproduced, issued, rented, performed, communicated, or adapted) by the defendant and the copyright work; and whether the restricted act has been committed in relation to the work or a substantial part thereof. It also looks at the European approach to finding infringement (following the Infopaq decision) and compares it with the British approach before concluding with a description of non-literal copying of such works.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

2. Introduction To Copyright  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter provides an introduction to copyright and the history and functions of copyright law, as well as international and European trends and developments that have influenced copyright law in the UK. It first considers ‘author’s rights’ and ‘neighbouring rights’ before turning to justifications that have been put forward for copyright, with particular reference to arguments invoking natural rights, rewards and incentives, neoliberal economics, and the ‘democratic paradigm’. The chapter also examines the seven significant treaties that have influenced British copyright law as well as European directives that have had an important and growing impact on British copyright law, including the Software Directive, the Related Rights Directive, and the Information Society Directive.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

4. Criteria For Protection  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the criteria used to determine whether a work is to be protected by copyright. More specifically, it considers the requirements for copyright protection: the work must be recorded in a material form; must be ‘original’; should be sufficiently connected to the UK to qualify for protection under UK law; and should not be excluded from protection on public policy grounds. There is discussion of the traditional British conception of originality, harmonization of ‘originality’ in Europe, analysis of differences between British and European standards on originality, and the issue of whether the UK can—and does—protect non-original works. The chapter concludes by focusing on subject matter excluded from copyright protection.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

5. Authorship and First Ownership  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the concept of authorship, as it is understood in copyright law, as well as the first ownership of copyright and the various exceptions to this rule. It begins by discussing the author of a work as defined in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 before elaborating on the task of determining who the author of a work is, including difficulties raised by joint authorship. The chapter also looks at exceptions to first ownership, including works created by employees, those governed by Crown copyright or made under the direction or control of Parliament, and commissioned works.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

6. Copyright 5: authors’ rights, and exploitation of copyright  

This chapter begins by examining the rights granted exclusively to authors—moral rights and artist’s resale right. It discusses ‘moral rights’ first, that is, the right to be identified as the author of the protected work, and to have that work’s integrity respected by others, followed by the artist’s resale right. The rest of this chapter discusses fundamental rules and controls on exploitation and use of copyright. This includes dealings in copyright, such as assignment and licensing; specific features of copyright exploitation, for example collective licensing; and also contemporary issues related to the use of copyright works, for example the challenge of orphan works for users, and the application of technological protection measures by right owners to prevent unauthorised use of or access to protected works.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

9. Defences  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter deals with the exceptions that a person may invoke in defence when sued for copyright infringement. Most of these exceptions are referred to as ‘permitted acts’ in Chapter III of Part 1 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988). The chapter begins by introducing six concepts that feature in many of the exceptions set out in the CDPA 1988: fair dealing, non-commercial use and not-for-profit users, lawful use, sufficient acknowledgement, relationship with contract, and dealings with copies made under exceptions. It then discusses the exceptions relating to non-commercial research or private study; text and data analysis; criticism or review; quotation and parody; disclosure in the public interest; uses of works for people with disabilities; public administration; databases, computer programs, and electronic programs; and artistic works and broadcasts.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

11. Exploitation and Use of Copyright  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the ways in which copyright can be exploited or transferred, with emphasis on the two most important forms of exploitation: assignment and licensing. It also discusses the transfer of copyright in the case of mortgages, bankruptcy, or death, as well as situations in which compulsory licences and voluntary licences are used to exploit copyright. In addition, the chapter considers testamentary dispositions, techniques for exploiting works that rely on the use of technological protection measures, and the role of collecting societies in copyright exploitation.

Book

Cover Intellectual Property Law
All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. Intellectual Property Law: Text, Cases, and Materials provides a complete resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students of intellectual property (IP) law. The only text of its kind in the field, it combines extracts from major cases and secondary materials with critical commentary from experienced teachers in the field. The book deals with all areas of IP law in the UK: copyright, trade marks and passing off, personality and publicity rights, character merchandising, confidential information and privacy, industrial designs and patents. It also tackles topical areas, such as the application of IP law to new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, and the impact of the internet on trade marks, copyright, and privacy. While the focus of the book is on IP law in a domestic context, it provides international, EU, and comparative law perspectives on major issues, and also addresses the wider policy implications of legislative and judicial developments in the area. The book is an ideal resource for all students of IP law who need cases, materials, and commentary in a single volume.

Book

Cover Intellectual Property Law

Stavroula Karapapa and Luke McDonagh

Intellectual Property Law aims to provide a comprehensive text on all aspects of this field. The first part looks at the complexities of copyright law, from authorship and first ownership to infringements and defences. It also covers moral and related rights. The second part looks exclusively at passing off. Then the text turns to trade marks. It examines the absolute grounds for refusal and the relative grounds for refusal of registration. It looks in detail at infringement and loss of registration of trade marks, and this part of the book ends with an examination of defences to trade mark infringement. The next part is about patents. After an introduction to patents the text analyses ownership and infringement of patents. The text then moves on to confidential information, in other words, trade secrets. Designs are examined after this. The final few chapters are about the exploitation and enforcement of intellectual property. The text concludes.

Book

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

Abbe Brown, Smita Kheria, Jane Cornwell, and Marta Iljadica

Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy, sixth edition, offers a unique perspective on intellectual property (IP) law, unrivalled amongst IP textbooks. An accessible introduction to IP law, it provides not only a comprehensive account of the substantive law, but also discusses the overarching policies directing the legal decision-making, as well as areas for further debate. Intellectual property law is an increasingly global subject, and the book introduces the relevant European and international dimensions—along with the implications of Brexit—to present a realistic view of the law as it actually operates. It explores IP law as an organic discipline, evaluating the success with which it has responded to new challenges. Images and diagrams, with analysis of key cases and key extracts, are all incorporated alongside the author commentary to clearly illustrate the core principles in IP law. Exercise, questions, and discussion points are provided to help the reader to engage with the material, and additional material is provided in the Online Resources. Beyond providing an up-to-date account of IP law, the text examines the complex policies that inform modern IP law at the UK, European, and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to IP law and policy, and the reader is encouraged to engage critically with the text and the subject matter. The book has been carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable way.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

3. Subject Matter  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter is concerned with the subject matter, or types of creation, protected by copyright law as stipulated by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Eight categories of work are examined: literary works, dramatic works, musical works, artistic works, films, sound recordings, broadcasts, and published editions (or typographical works). The chapter considers the definitions of these categories of work in the case law and through the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice. It discusses whether the list of works must be treated as an exhaustive list.