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Chapter

Cover The Principles of Land Law

2. Personal and Property Rights in Land  

This chapter explains the nature of land as a legal concept, as well as the nature of rights in land. Land includes both corporeal things — such as land and buildings — and incorporeal things, such as rights over land. Property rights in relation to land come in two forms: estates and interests. Estates are rights which a person holds in their ‘own land’, while interests are rights which a person holds in relation to another's land. Both of these are proprietary; proprietary interests are those rights which are capable of having third party effects. Therefore, the crucial distinction between personal and property rights is about the effect that these rights can have on third parties. The chapter then looks at the numerus clausus (closed list) of property rights. If a right is not part of this list, then it is licence. Licences are the generic category of rights that relate to land but which are not property rights. The four categories of licence include estoppel licences, bare licences, contractual licences, and licences coupled with an interest. The chapter concludes by exploring the concept of relativity of title in English land law.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

3. Personal Rights and Property Rights  

This chapter examines property rights in land and personal rights that may allow a party to make a particular use of land. It first considers the distinction between personal rights and property rights before addressing the content question: whether the type of right claimed by a party counts as a property right. To answer that question, a distinction is made between different types of property right. The most important distinction is between legal property rights, on the one hand, and equitable property rights, on the other. The chapter also discusses licences to use land and contrasts their operation and effect with those of property rights in land. It highlights the nature of licences and the controversy over contractual and estoppel licences and concludes with an analysis of the relationship between the law of leases and of licence.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

7. Personal Rights: Licences  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter presents a discussion of licences. Licences can be grouped into a number of categories, including bare licences, contractual licences, estoppel licences, statutory licences, and licences coupled with an interest. The key feature of a bare licence is that A is under no duty to B not to revoke the licence. The distinction between a bare licence and a contractual licence turns on the question of whether A is under a contractual duty to B. An estoppel licence, as well as a statutory licence, is similar to a contractual licence: the key difference is the source of A’s duty to B. A ‘licence coupled with an interest’ is a permission to make a particular use of A’s land, which arises as part of a distinct property right held by B in A’s land. The chapter considers the impact of all these forms of licences, looking at the positions of A, of X (a stranger who interferes with the land), and of C (a party who acquires a right in the land from A). It considers whether particular forms of licence ought to count as equitable interests in land. It also examines when a licensee may be protected by a new, direct right against a third party, even though the licence itself is only a personal right.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Land Law

8. Proprietary Estoppel  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter examines how to decide whether the circumstances of the case give rise to a constructive or resulting trust, a contractual licence, or to the doctrine of proprietary estoppel, and the remedies satisfying a proprietary estoppel. The question of the role of unconscionability in the doctrine of proprietary estoppel remains topical, and the issue of proportionality between detriment and remedy, now a key concern of the courts, is examined.