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Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

1. Partnerships and Partnership Law  

This chapter describes the essential characteristics and consequences of a partnership and the derivation and development of partnership law in England and Wales under the Partnership Act 1890. It also covers the introduction of limited partnerships and contrasts both with LLPs; topics which are dealt with from chapter 9 onwards. It highlights the lack of legal personality, contrasting that with partnership law in Scotland, and the consequent problems of contemplated partnerships and continuity. Then it sets out the three essentials for a partnership to exist: a business, carried on in common, with a view of profit, contrasting partnerships with joint ventures. The chapter also considers the complications if there are corporate partners. Finally, it sets out the basic issues relating to jurisdiction for foreign partnerships.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

3. Legal Controls on Partnerships  

This chapter details the relatively few legal controls and restrictions on partnerships and partnership agreements, together with aspects of contract law and litigation issues. In terms of contract law, the issues are capacity to become a partner, illegality and partnerships, and restraint of trade clauses in partnership agreements. With regard to the latter, the issues are validity and severance of such clauses as a matter of public policy, and enforcement. Medical and solicitors' partnerships are specifically considered in that context. The controls on partnership and business names in the Companies Act 2006 are set out, followed by the possibility of passing-off actions in tort. Finally, the position of partnerships, not being legal persons, as either complainants or defendants is considered.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

7. Dissolution and Winding Up  

This chapter details the various grounds for the dissolution of a solvent partnership, contractual, automatic and by court order, followed by the processes whereby either a full dissolution is effected by a winding up or on a technical dissolution a departing partner's share is ascertained The effects of the death or bankruptcy of a partner and the illegality of the partnership business are considered along with agreed dissolution grounds. The various grounds for a court order are then set out. The effects of the frustration, rescission or repudiation of the partnership agreement are detailed. Winding up by the partners or receivers is then set out including the application of the assets on a winding up. The valuation of a partner's share on leaving is considered followed by his or her share in the profits after the technical dissolution until payment. Finally, the distribution of assets on a final account, is set out.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

13. The Negotiation Process  

This chapter explores the negotiation process. Good communication skills are very important for effective negotiation. Each negotiator should make clear any limits on authority, and whether any settlement will be subject to client approval. Indeed, agenda setting and opening are important in gaining control of a negotiation. It is normal to move through each issue reasonably systematically, making best use of information, analysis, and presentation. It is also important to deal with concessions, offers, and demands effectively to get the best outcome for the client. The negotiator should be able to identify the problems that can arise in a negotiation process and the techniques that may be used to overcome them. If a negotiation is successful, an oral contract is reached; the terms should then be clarified and recorded. Even if the negotiation is not successful, progress may be made with regard to the case.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

26. Arbitration  

This chapter discusses arbitration, which is an adjudicative dispute resolution process. It is based on an agreement between the parties to refer a dispute or difference between them to impartial arbitrators for a decision. As a consequence of the contractual basis of arbitration, it is not every dispute that can go to arbitration. The chapter considers the requirements for an effective reference to arbitration, but it should be noted that the agreement to arbitrate may be made before or after the relevant dispute has arisen. This means that there may be a pre-existing arbitration agreement which, when a dispute arises, one of the parties wishes to evade. There is a strong public policy in favour of upholding arbitration agreements; this is supported by the idea that an arbitration clause in a contract is separable from the rest of the substantive contract. Arbitrations in England and Wales are governed by the Arbitration Act 1996, which lays down a highly developed set of procedures for arbitrations.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

29. International Arbitration  

This chapter focuses on international arbitration, which broadly covers any reference to arbitration involving parties in different states. International arbitration is most frequently met in the shipping, construction and engineering, oil and gas industries, and also in disputes involving insurance, banking, and financial services. Different systems of law may govern the substantive contract, the agreement to arbitrate, and the procedural law of an arbitration. Ideally the parties will have reached express agreement on the system(s) of law governing each of these areas. If there is no express agreement on the system of law, it will be determined from all the circumstances. The chapter then considers a range of possible challenges to the jurisdiction of a tribunal, as well as several different ways in which a challenge to the tribunal's jurisdiction can be brought. It also looks at the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) arbitration rules and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on International Arbitration.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

32. Enforcement of Settlements and Awards  

This chapter focuses on the enforcement of settlements and awards. The approach taken to enforcement of compromises in large measure depends on the nature of the process used to resolve the original dispute. In adjudicative procedures, enforcement will often be through registering the award with the courts of the state where enforcement is to take place, and then enforcing the award as a civil judgment. An exception is construction industry adjudications, where the decision is not itself registrable. Instead, it may be enforced through bringing court proceedings and entering judgment. In non-adjudicative procedures, if the parties have resolved their dispute, they will have entered into a contract of compromise. Enforcement is through suing on that contract. Alternatively, in a non-adjudicative procedure, the parties may convert the compromise agreement into a court judgment or order, and then enforce that judgment or order.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

23. Recording Settlement  

This chapter explores the process of recording a settlement, which is the final part of the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process. It is essential that all the issues between the parties are covered in a settlement agreement. If particular issues are deliberately left out of the agreement, or are left for further agreement, this should be made clear. The normal rules of contract law must also be adhered to, or the settlement will not be binding. While oral agreements are usually binding, the risk of misunderstandings means that it is invariably best practice to record the agreement in writing. The chapter then looks at the different methods of recording settlement agreements, including exchange of letters, contract or deed, interim order, consent order, and Tomlin order. Ultimately, when drawing up the agreement, it is important not to overlook how any existing proceedings are to be dealt with and on how the costs are to be paid.