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Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

9. Passing of the property in the goods as between seller and buyer  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines the concept of the passing of the property in goods as between seller and buyer which has significance for many purposes in law. It discusses why the matter is important, before going on to cover the rules for determining when the property passes as it is plainly a matter of the greatest importance to identify the point at which it occurs. The chapter goes on to discuss the statutory provisions relating to perishing of specific goods, how the passing of property is related to acceptance or rejection of goods, the risk involved in the passing of property, and the frustration of sale of goods contracts.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

1. An introduction to commercial law  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter introduces the reader to commercial law. It first considers the nature of commercial law by focusing on the definitions offered by previous scholars of note. It then examines its function and historical development, and discusses various sources of commercial law such as contracts and national legislation. In addition it refers importantly to the role of equity and trusts in commercial law, to public law in the commercial arena, and to the philosophy and concepts of commercial law. Possible codification of commercial law is discussed. Finally, the chapter assesses the challenges for commercial law in the twenty-first century and briefly discusses the impact of Brexit on English commercial law.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

6. Relations with third parties  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines how contracts made by the agent affect the legal relations of the principal with regard to third parties. When considering the rights and liability arising under a contract made by an agent, it is important to draw the distinction between whether the agent was acting for a disclosed or undisclosed principal, the latter being an important feature of English agency law largely unknown to civil lawyers. This chapter discusses generally the relations between principal and third party, and between agent and third party, in the context of both disclosed and undisclosed agency.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

18. Security  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter discusses security in lending. Lending is in some cases unsecured, where the standing of the borrower is such that the banks cannot demand it or, because of the creditworthiness of the borrower, do not regard it as necessary. However, much international lending is now oriented towards particular projects, and security is taken. Security is often required so that the bank can recoup itself out of the collateral in the event of default. In relation to project financings, the security required by the banks will often be of a comprehensive nature; for example a fixed and floating charge, a charge over shares, a legal assignment of material contracts, and so on. With syndicated lending, the security might be granted in favour of a security trustee to hold to the benefit of the members of the lending syndicate. Within a corporate group, each member may contribute to the security, and there will be cross-guarantees.

Chapter

Cover Principles of Banking Law

7. The Bank–Customer Relationship  

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter focuses on the customer and the services which banks offer to customers. It begins by filling in some of the details about the customers of banks and modern banking services. In this context it gives attention to how the relationship between banks and their customers may be characterized as a matter of law. Contract emerges from this as the overarching feature of the relationship; thus, the second and third sections of the chapter discuss banking contracts and their regulation. The final section turns to a specific banking service, the taking of deposits. Historically this has been the core banking service, and deposit-taking has been central to any definition of banking.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

17. The remedies of the buyer  

This chapter sets out the remedies available to the buyer under a contract of sale. Before the Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumers Regulations 2002, these remedies comprised damages for non-delivery of the contract goods, specific performance, and damages for breach of warranty. In cases of breach of condition, the buyer generally has the right to reject the goods and repudiate the contract. Since implementation of the 2002 Regulations, a buyer who deals as consumer has additional remedies of repair, replacement, reduction in price, or rescission. These additional consumer remedies are discussed after a consideration of the remedies that are available to all buyers, including consumers, beginning with those remedies granted to a buyer where the seller fails to deliver the goods, or fails to deliver on time. Certain consumer contracts entered into after 1 October 2015 are governed by the Consumer Rights Act 2015, which is also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

12. Performance of the contract  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter considers the duties of the seller to give a good title to the goods he sells and physically to deliver those goods to the buyer in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale. The chapter also examines the provisions of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 relevant to the sale of a limited title and the implied warranties as to freedom from encumbrances and quiet possession. Finally, it describes the statutory duties of the buyer to take delivery, to accept the goods, and to pay the price.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

13. Remedies of the seller  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the remedies of the seller where the goods are not accepted or paid for by the buyer. The subjects covered in the chapter include both money claims against the buyer, notably for the price or for damages for breach of contract, and claims against the goods or their proceeds in order to provide security where the buyer has failed to pay (eg lien, stoppage in transit, and resale). Reservation of title is also dealt with. There is also a brief mention of the remedy of specific performance.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

15. International sales  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines the rules of English law governing international commercial sales, a subject of disproportionate importance because of the surprisingly large proportion of international trade carried on under contracts governed by English law by choice of the parties. Contracts of this type expose the parties to greater risks than purely domestic sales. The chapter gives detailed coverage of typical export transactions and INCOTERMS, both marine and non-marine, including FOB contracts, FAS contracts, CIF contracts and variants of the CIF contract, and DAP contracts as well as FCA, CIP, and similar contracts. Likely future developments are also mentioned.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

27. Insurance  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter deals with the principles of insurance law. First, the chapter explains how insurance works, with a particular focus on insurable interest, the statutes that govern insurance contracts, and the power of the Financial Conduct Authority to authorise persons wishing to conduct business as insurers. The chapter then considers how an insurance contract is formed and goes on to describe the content and interpretation of the contract. It also discusses the liability and rights of the insurer before concluding with an analysis of marine insurance and insurance claims.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

8. Introduction and definitions  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter serves as an introduction to the English law governing sale of goods, along with relevant definitions. It introduces the common law of sale of goods and its subsequent codification by the Sale of Goods Act 1893, later consolidated in 1979 and which (following further minor amendments) is now the principal source of the law. It also considers some key definitions relating to sale of goods, before discussing the nature of a sale and how it differs from related transactions such as barter or exchange, bailment, agency, and hire-purchase.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

8. Relations between agent and third party  

This chapter considers the relations between the agent and third party. The typical function of an agent is to affect the legal position of his principal in relation to third parties, typically achieved by the agent effecting contractual relations between his principal and a third party or third parties. To this contract, the agent is usually a stranger and it therefore follows that, providing all parties perform their obligations, there will be no legal relations between the agent and third party, aside from any warranty of authority that might be deemed to exist. If the parties, however, fail to properly perform their obligations, legal relations between the agent and third party may arise that allow one party to sue, or be sued by, the other. This chapter discusses the general rule, and also those situations where the agent and third party will acquire a cause of action against the other.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

13. Perishing of goods  

This chapter considers the effect on the parties’ contract of sale in the event that the goods perish. Before doing so, it considers briefly the position of non-existent goods. It might be considered sensible to think that where the seller sells specific goods, a condition would be implied that the goods existed at the time of the making of the contract and that the seller would be liable to the buyer if he sold goods that did not exist. The seller, after all, does warrant that he or she has the right to sell the goods and, where he or she sells the goods in the course of a business, also warrants that they are of satisfactory quality and fit for purpose. However, such a seller is generally not liable.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

16. The remedies of the seller  

This chapter considers the remedies available to a seller if the buyer fails to pay for the goods pursuant to a contract of sale. It should be noted at the outset that the term ‘seller’ also includes ‘any person who is in the position of a seller, such as an agent of the seller to whom a bill of lading has been indorsed, or a consignor or agent who has himself paid (or is directly responsible for) the price’. This is of particular assistance to an agent who, having paid the price to the seller with the intention of recovering the money from the buyer, will have the same protection afforded to unpaid sellers as if he or she were the seller directly.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

21. Contracts of carriage of goods by sea  

This chapter discusses contracts for the carriage of goods where the person requiring goods to be carried by sea (called the `shipper’) has booked space on a ship by entering into a contract of carriage with the carrier rather than chartering a whole vessel. The chapter deals initially with the common law approach to contracts of carriage by sea before showing how the Hague Visby Rules apply to the rights and duties of both shipper and carrier arising under such contracts.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

7. Relations between principal and third party  

This chapter examines the relationship that exists between principal and third party, focusing in particular on the liability that exists between principal and third party, and those instances when they can sue, and be sued by, the other. Liability principally arises in contract and tort, and so these two areas of liability will be discussed, beginning with the contractual liability of the principal and third party. The contractual relationship between the principal and third party, and the extent to which one party can be liable to the other, can be complex and depends upon a number of variables, notably whether the principal is disclosed or undisclosed. In a typical agency relationship an agent will effect a contract between his principal and a third party, after which the agent will ‘drop out’ of the transaction.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

6. Non-existence and perishing of goods  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the effect of the contract of sale of goods in the event that the goods never existed or, if they did exist at one time, are no longer in existence. It first looks at the contract for the sale of specific goods which, without the knowledge of the seller, have perished at the time when the contract is made and then considers an agreement to sell specific goods which, without any fault on the part of either party, subsequently perish before the risk passes to the buyer. The chapter also explains the frustration of a contract for the sale of unascertained goods under s 7 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 and the question of monies owing or to be repaid under the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

5. Exclusion and limitation clauses  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on clauses designed to exclude or limit a party’s liability, first considers exclusion or limitation clauses in the UK under common law rules, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the distinction between an exclusion clause and a limitation clause before discussing the two main methods of controlling exclusion clauses adopted by the courts. The chapter examines the exclusion or restriction of the statutory implied terms under the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982. Finally, it considers the rules introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 in relation to consumer transactions.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

12. The creation of agency and the agent’s authority  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts, provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

13. The relationships created by agency: the rights and liabilities of the parties  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the relationships created by agency, namely, the rights and liabilities of the agent, the principal, and the third party. It first explains disclosed agency as opposed to undisclosed agency with regard to the contract made by the agent, and then, after discussing the rights and liabilities of the principal and the third party, considers the rights of the agent against their principal, including remuneration, indemnity, and lien. The chapter examines the agent’s two kinds of duty to their principal (contractual duty and fiduciary duty) and discusses remedies for breach of fiduciary duty and how an agency may be terminated as well as the effects of termination. It concludes by highlighting the provisions of the Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993.