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Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

2. Contract I: essential features of a contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the essential features of a contract. Offer and acceptance are the first stages in establishing an agreement that may form a legally binding contract. An offer may be accepted at any point until it is terminated. Acceptance can only be made by the offeree or their agent. Consideration is the bargain element of a contract and may be referred to as the ‘price of a promise’. The parties must intend for an agreement to establish legal relations to create an enforceable contract. Presumptions exist in relation to social/domestic agreements and business/commercial agreements.

Book

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

Jill Poole, James Devenney, and Adam Shaw-Mellors

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Contract Law Concentrate contains a wealth of information on the field of contract law to aid with revision and understanding the elements of the contract law syllabus. It looks specifically at the components of agreement, enforceability criteria comprising intention to create legal relations, consideration, and the doctrine of promissory estoppel. It also focuses on some problems associated with reaching agreement, such as whether the terms are sufficiently certain, and mistakes which prevent agreement. The doctrine of privity determines who has the ability to enforce the contract and whether a third party can take the intended benefit of a contract. Contract Law Concentrate focuses on the terms (or promises) of the contract and breach of contract when those promises are broken. It also examines exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. Next it looks at remedies for the breach of contract. It then turns to contractual impossibility and risk where the default rules of common mistake (initial impossibility) and frustration (subsequent impossibility) will determine the parties’ positions in the absence of party allocation. Finally, it outlines contractual remedies for actionable misrepresentations and looks briefly at the common law doctrine of duress and the equitable doctrine of undue influence.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

3. Enforceability issues  

Intention to be bound, consideration, and promissory estoppel

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the question of whether the promises contained in the agreement are enforceable so that there is a legally binding contract in place (formation). It considers the parties’ intention to be legally bound and the need to establish that the promises are part of a bargain. The same bargain requirement applies to alteration promises, although the treatment of alteration promises is not as strict. It is possible for freely made alteration promises to be enforceable when not ‘paid for’ with another promise or action, e.g. by means of the doctrine of promissory estoppel.

Chapter

Cover Public Law Concentrate

11. Grounds for judicial reviewIllegality  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter looks at the classification of grounds for judicial review, illegality, ultra vires, jurisdictional and non-jurisdictional error, subjective discretion and the ultra vires doctrine, improper purpose with or without express stipulation in the empowering statute, mixed motives, relevant and irrelevant considerations with or without express stipulation in the empowering statute, lack of evidence, and unlawful failure to exercise a discretionary power by policy, estoppel based on a representation made by an official, agreement, or wrongful delegation.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

3. Consideration and Intention to Create Legal Relations  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans, suggested answers, and other features. This chapter explains the doctrine of consideration and other elements necessary for the enforceability of an agreement, such as an intention to create legal relations. The doctrine of consideration is shaped by three important rules: traditionally consideration must move from the promisee (a party must provide consideration if he is to sue on a promise); consideration must be sufficient but need not be adequate (both parties need only contribute something of value in the eyes of the law to the bargain, however disproportionate); and performance of an existing contract does not normally constitute sufficient consideration for any modification in the terms of that contract. The chapter also looks at the equitable doctrine of promissory estoppel.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Equity and Trusts

4. Constitution of Trusts  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans, suggested answers, and author commentary. This book offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. This chapter covers questions on the constitution of trusts.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Company Law

9. Share Capital  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines the law on share capital for public and private companies. The doctrine of capital maintenance ensures that the company has raised the capital it claims to have raised; and that the capital is not subsequently returned, directly or indirectly, to the shareholders. There is a great deal of (mainly statutory) law surrounding this doctrine This chapter considers the capital maintenance doctrine itself and many related topics, including: the issue of shares for non-cash consideration, issue of shares at a discount, reduction of capital, purchase of a company’s own shares, redeemable shares, payment of dividends, and financial assistance by a company for the purchase of its own shares.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

4. Privity and third party rights  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the doctrine of privity and third party rights. The doctrine of privity of contract provides that a person who is not a party to a contract (called a ‘third party’), cannot acquire rights under or enforce the provisions of that contract or rely on its protections even if the provisions were intended to benefit that third party. At common law there are complex, and sometimes artificial, ways to avoid this conclusion. More significant nowadays is the attempt to reform this principle by legislation in the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, allowing some third party beneficiaries to enforce the provisions of contracts.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. Concentrate Q&A Contract Law provides guidance on answering questions on the law of contract. The book starts with an introduction explaining how to use the book and exploring the skills necessary for success in contract law exams. The book then looks at offer and acceptance, certainty of terms, consideration and intention to create legal relations. After that it examines terms of the contract, exclusion/exemption clauses and unfair terms, misrepresentation, improper pressure, mistake and issues relating to illegality and restraint of trade. The final part of the book looks at frustration, damages, additional remedies, privity of contract and has a short section dealing with mixed questions. The book ends with a chapter containing advice on answering coursework questions.