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Chapter

Cover Legal Skills

21. Drafting skills  

This chapter introduces drafting skills. It explains the differences between legal drafting and legal writing. Using a statement of case as an example of a document with a specific legal purpose, the chapter develops the skills of writing in concise, plain, and contemporary language, maintaining formality or legal accuracy and structuring a clear and logical draft which complies with the key parts of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998. It concludes with a worked example of improving the first draft of a set of particulars of claim.

Chapter

Cover Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law

3. Roman Litigation  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the perils of litigation in early Rome. It then describes the legis actiones, the five early forms of action in Roman law. All the legis actiones were characterized by strict formalism and were only available to Roman citizens. The actions-at-law were the foundation of early civil procedure. However, the excessive formality, archaic nature, and limited effectiveness of the legis actiones made it unsuitable in the long term for a rapidly expanding, economically vibrant Rome. The system fell largely into disuse in the late Republic and was formally abolished by Augustus in 17 BC, by which time the formulary procedure had long become established. The formulary system remained the operative system of civil procedure well into the Empire but was later abolished in favour of the cognitio procedure; its operation is considered in its developed form in the later Empire.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

17. Civil Litigation  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers the conduct of civil litigation. It discusses how civil litigation is more managed than criminal litigation and the courts seek to assist litigants in finding a compromise. The civil courts have extensive powers over costs and they use this to ensure compliance with their rulings and also to encourage early settlement, reducing the need for litigation. The chapter examines three types of civil litigation; cases relating to the small-claims track (‘small claims court’), judicial review and private family-law disputes.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

17. Civil Litigation  

This chapter considers the conduct of civil litigation. It discusses how civil litigation is more managed than criminal litigation and the courts seek to assist litigants in finding a compromise. The civil courts have extensive powers over costs and they use this to ensure compliance with their rulings and also to encourage early settlement, reducing the need for litigation. The chapter examines three types of civil litigation; cases relating to the small-claims track (‘small claims court’), judicial review, and private family-law disputes.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

15. The civil process  

This chapter is a general introduction to civil litigation and the civil courts. It describes the process by which a civil claim is dealt with in the County Court or the High Court. It provides an overview of the major case management powers in the civil courts and discusses how these powers must be exercised to further the overriding objective of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (as amended) to deal with matters justly and at proportionate cost. A brief history of the development of the civil court rules is included. Some of the basic principles of civil evidence are discussed and the methods of enforcement of civil judgments are set out.

Book

Cover Borkowski's Textbook on Roman Law
Course-focused and comprehensive, Borkowski’s Textbook on Roman Law provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Borkowski’s Textbook on Roman Law provides an account of Roman private law and civil procedure, with coverage of all key topics, including the Roman legal system, and the law of persons, property, and obligations. The text sets the law in its social and historical context, and demonstrates the impact of Roman law on our modern legal systems. For the sixth edition, the text has been comprehensively reviewed and references to a wide range of scholarly texts have been included, to ground the account of Roman law firmly in contemporary scholarship. Examples from legal practice have been added where these illuminate legal doctrine. The text has been updated to reflect current scholarly opinions. References to the latest legal scholarship on Roman law have been included to reflect the most recent developments in the field.