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Book

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence
Cross & Tapper on Evidence has become firmly established as a classic of legal literature. This thirteenth edition reflects on all recent changes and developments in this fast-moving subject. In particular, it fully examines new case law relevant to evidence of privilege, character, and hearsay. The inclusion of some comparative material provides an excellent basis for the critical appraisal of English law. This book remains the definitive guide to the law of evidence.

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Cover Evidence

7. Evidence of the defendant’s good character in criminal cases  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the following: when the defence may adduce evidence of the defendant’s good character, what constitutes evidence of good character, the form that a judge’s good character direction must take, what consequences may flow from adducing such evidence, and how the Court of Appeal will react to a judge’s failure to deliver a suitable direction to the jury. The chapter concludes with brief consideration of when, if ever, evidence of prosecution witnesses’ good character is admissible.

Book

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

Adrian Keane and Paul McKeown

The Modern Law of Evidence is a comprehensive analysis of the law of criminal and civil evidence and the theory behind the law. It identifies all the key issues, emphasizes recent developments and insights from the academic literature, and makes suggestions for further reading. The work begins with a definition of evidence and the law of evidence and an outline of its development to date. It then describes and analyses the key concepts, such as the facts open to proof, the forms that evidence can take, relevance, admissibility, weight, and discretion. It then proceeds to cover in a logical sequence all aspects of the subject: the burden and standard of proof, proof of facts without evidence, documentary and real evidence, witnesses, examination-in-chief, cross-examination and re-examination, corroboration and care warnings, visual and voice identification, evidence obtained by illegal or unfair means, hearsay, confessions, adverse inferences from an accused’s silence, evidence of good and bad character, opinion evidence, public policy, privilege, and the admissibility of previous verdicts.

Book

Cover Evidence

Roderick Munday

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. Written by leading academics and renowned for their clarity, these concise texts explain the intellectual challenges of each area of the law. Evidence provides students with a succinct yet thought-provoking introduction to all of the key areas covered on undergraduate law of evidence courses. Vibrant and engaging, the book sets out to demystify a traditionally intimidating area of law. Probing analysis of the issues, both historical and current, ensures that the text contains a thorough exploration of the ‘core’ of the subject. The book covers: the relevance and admissibility of evidence; presumptions and the burden of proof; witnesses: competence, compellability and various privileges; the course of the trial; witnesses’ previous consistent statements and the remnants of the rule against narrative; character and credibility; evidence of the defendant’s bad character; the opinion rule and the presentation of expert evidence; the rule against hearsay; confessions; drawing adverse inferences from a defendant’s omissions, lies or false alibis; and identification evidence. A clearly structured introduction, this is the ideal text for any student who may find evidence a somewhat forbidding subject.

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Cover Evidence

10. Character Evidence  

Chapter 10 begins with a discussion of the relevance of evidence of character. It then deals with the admissibility of character evidence in civil and criminal proceedings. In civil cases, the admissibility of evidence of a party’s bad character is governed simply by the test of relevance. In criminal proceedings, the entitlement of a defendant to a direction on the significance of his or her good character is taken seriously. The Criminal Justice Act 2003 now provides a comprehensive statement of the law on evidence of bad character in criminal proceedings.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

VII. Character in general  

This chapter examines the evidence of the character of parties, witnesses, and third parties. Evidence of character has never been a model of coherence or clarity either at common law or under statute. It is complex, both in the connotation and means of proof of the concept of character, and in the variety of contexts in which it arises. The concept embraces both disposition, commonly described as propensity, to act in a relevant way, and sometimes the means of proof of such relevant disposition, either through reputation, the expressed belief of others of the subject's disposition, or of acts of the subject from which such disposition may be inferred. It may be relevant in any form of proceedings, and at any stage of a trial.

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Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

VIII. Bad character of the accused  

This chapter takes up the discussion from the previous chapter by exploring the bad character of the accused. This subject matter is almost wholly governed by certain provisions in the Criminal Justice Act 2003. Thus, the chapter first considers the nature of the problem of the admission of evidence of the bad character of the accused; then attempts at reform, at common law, by recommendations of law reform bodies, and by legislation; an indication of the principal forms of continuing dissatisfaction; and finally the intentions and techniques designed to remedy them. Next, the chapter considers the structure of the bad character provisions from the 2003 legislation and the gateways it provides for admissibility. Finally, this chapter concludes with a brief appraisal of the 2003 act.

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Cover Murphy on Evidence

14. Character evidence I  

Character evidence generally; in civil cases; evidence of good character

This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the uses and development of character evidence from the common law through to the codification provided by the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The second section deals with evidence of character in civil cases, covering defamation cases; evidence of good character; and evidence of bad character. The third section focuses on evidence of good character in criminal cases, including the important case of Hunter [2015] 1 WLR 5367, and covers admissibility and methods of proof; kinds of evidence permitted; rebuttal of evidence of good character; and evidential value of evidence of good character.

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Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

17. Evidence of character: evidence of character in civil cases  

This chapter discusses the admissibility of evidence of character. A number of factors govern the admissibility of character evidence, including whether the proceedings are civil or criminal and whether the evidence relates to the character of a party or non-party. It is also necessary to consider the nature of the character evidence in question. It may relate to either good or bad character and, in either event, may constitute evidence of a person’s actual disposition, that is his propensity to act, think, or feel in a given way; or evidence of his reputation, that is his reputed disposition or propensity to act, think, or feel in a given way. Thus, the character of a person may be proved by evidence of general disposition, by evidence of specific examples of his conduct on other occasions (including, in the case of bad conduct, evidence of his previous convictions), or by evidence of his reputation among those to whom he is known. The chapter considers civil cases in which bad character designated ‘similar fact evidence’ has been admitted.

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Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

18. Evidence of character: evidence of the good character of the accused  

This chapter discusses the circumstances in which, in criminal proceedings, evidence of the good character of the accused may be adduced because of its relevance either to a fact in issue or to his credibility. It addresses the following issues: Why should an accused be allowed to call evidence of his previous good character? What is meant by ‘good character?’ Linked to this, where an accused has previous convictions, in what circumstances might it be acceptable for a judge to tell a jury that they should consider the accused as a person of good character? Where an accused has no previous convictions, in what circumstances might it be acceptable for a judge to refuse to tell a jury that they should treat the accused as a person of good character? Other issues discussed include the admissibility of evidence of the good character of prosecution witnesses.

Book

Cover Murphy on Evidence

Richard Glover

Murphy on Evidence is firmly established as a leading text for use on undergraduate law courses and in preparation for professional examinations. Frequently consulted by judges and practitioners, and regularly cited in judgments, it has come to be regarded as a work of authority throughout the common law world. The book’s unique approach effectively bridges the gap between academic study of the law of evidence and its application in practice, combining detailed analysis of the law with a wealth of practical information about how it is used in the courtroom. As in previous editions, the author’s teaching method is centred around two realistic case studies—one criminal and one civil—presenting challenging evidence issues and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter. The case study material for this new edition has been further developed with new videos on the Online Resource Centre. Fully up to date with the latest developments in this fast-moving subject, the fifteenth edition of Murphy on Evidence is as indispensable as its predecessors. Topics include: the language of the law of evidence; the judicial function in the law of evidence; the burden and standard of proof; character evidence; and the rule against hearsay.

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Cover Evidence

8. Evidence of the defendant’s bad character  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. Human behaviour tends to follow patterns. Those who have previously been convicted of crime, or who can be shown to have committed other offences or to have behaved disreputably, either have a tendency to reoffend or are more likely to commit offences than those without such attributes. A defendant’s previous bad character may also reflect on credibility. This chapter discusses the following: the problem of whether or not to admit evidence of a defendant’s misconduct on other occasions; the situations in which evidence of a defendant’s bad character may become admissible in criminal cases, and the purposes for which it may be admitted. The admission of similar fact evidence in civil cases is also discussed.

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Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

19. Evidence of character: evidence of bad character in criminal cases  

This chapter begins with an introduction to the statutory framework governing the admissibility of bad character evidence. It goes on to consider the statutory definition of ‘bad character’ and to discuss the admissibility of evidence of bad character in criminal cases under the Criminal Justice Act 2003, namely: the admissibility of the bad character of a person other than the defendant and the requirement of leave; the admissibility of evidence of the bad character of the defendant under various statutory ‘gateways’, including the gateway by which evidence may be admitted if it is relevant to an important matter in issue between the defendant and the prosecution; and safeguards including the discretion to exclude evidence of bad character and the judge’s power to stop a case where the evidence is contaminated. Procedural rules are also considered, as is the defendant’s right to challenge evidence of bad character.

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Cover Murphy on Evidence

15. Character evidence II  

Evidence of bad character

This chapter discusses the evidence of bad character in criminal cases since the abolition of the common law rules relating to it. It covers the definition of bad character under ss. 98 and 112 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003; evidence of bad character of accused and the admissible gateways under s. 101; evidence of bad character of persons other than accused under s. 100; safeguards in relation to evidence of bad character under s. 103; and other statutory provisions dealing with bad character, in particular those dealing with sexual history questioning: s. 41 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999.

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Cover Murphy on Evidence

16. Previous judgments as evidence  

The common law adopted the position that previous judgments should not be admissible as evidence of the truth of the facts on which they are based, as against strangers to the judgment. However, given the evidential value of previous judgments, the following cases must be distinguished: (a) judgments as evidence of their own existence, content, and legal effect; (b) judgments as evidence of the truth of facts on which they are based, as between the parties to the proceedings in which the judgment was given, and their privies; and (c) judgments as evidence of the truth of facts on which they are based, as between strangers to the proceedings in which the judgment was given, or as between parties to the proceedings (or their privies) and strangers. This chapter discusses cases (a) and (c).

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Cover Evidence Concentrate

5. Character evidence  

This chapter, which focuses on the admissibility and evidential worth of character evidence, explains the definition of bad character under the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (CJA). It examines how bad character evidence of the defendant may be admitted through one of the ‘gateways’ under the Act. It reviews the evidential worth of the character evidence if admitted and explains the difference between propensity and credibility. The law on the admissibility of the bad character of non-defendant witnesses is explained and the reasons for a more protective stance highlighted. The chapter concludes with a review of the admissibility of good character evidence, governed by the common law.

Book

Cover Evidence

Andrew L-T Choo

Andrew Choo’s Evidence provides an account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales. It also explores the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. The text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a mix of critical and thought-provoking analysis. Where appropriate the text draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. This (sixth) edition takes account of revisions to the Criminal Procedure Rules, the Criminal Practice Directions, and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act Codes of Practice. It also examines in detail cases on various topics decided since the last edition was completed, or the significance of which has become clear since then, including: • Addlesee v Dentons Europe llp (CA, 2019) (legal professional privilege) • Birmingham City Council v Jones (CA, 2018) (standard of proof) • R v B (E) (CA, 2017) (good character evidence) • R v Brown (Nico) (CA, 2019) (hearsay evidence) • R v C (CA, 2019) (hearsay evidence) • R v Chauhan (CA, 2019) (submissions of ‘no case to answer’) • R v Gabbai (Edward) (CA, 2019) (bad character evidence) • R v Gillings (Keith) (CA, 2019) (bad character evidence) • R v Hampson (Philip) (CA, 2018) (special measures directions) • R v K (M) (CA, 2018) (burden of proof) • R v Kiziltan (CA, 2017) (hearsay evidence) • R v L (T) (CA, 2018) (entrapment) • R v Reynolds (CA, 2019) (summing-up) • R v S (CA, 2016) (hearsay evidence) • R v SJ (CA, 2019) (expert evidence) • R v Smith (Alec) (CA, 2020) (hearsay evidence) • R v Stevens (Jack) (CA, 2020) (presumptions) • R v Townsend (CA, 2020) (expert evidence) • R v Twigg (CA, 2019) (improperly obtained evidence) • R (Jet2.com Ltd) v CAA (CA, 2020) (legal professional privilege) • R (Maughan) v Oxfordshire Senior Coroner (SC, 2020) (standard of proof) • Serious Fraud Office v Eurasian Natural Resources Corpn Ltd (CA, 2018) (legal professional privilege) • Shagang Shipping Co Ltd v HNA Group Co Ltd (SC, 2020) (foundational concepts; improperly obtained evidence) • Stubbs v The Queen (PC, 2020) (identification evidence) • Volaw Trust and Corporate Services Ltd v Office of the Comptroller of Taxes (PC, 2019) (privilege against self-incrimination) • Volcafe Ltd v Cia Sud Americana de Vapores SA (SC, 2018) (burden of proof)

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. Concentrate Q&A Evidence offers expert advice on what to expect from your Evidence exam, how best to prepare and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides clear commentary with each question and answer and bullet points and diagram answer plans plus tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help the reader identify typical law exam questions, structure a first-class answer, avoid common mistakes, show the examiner what the reader knows and find relevant further reading. After an introduction, the book covers burden and standard of proof, presumptions, competence and compellability, Special Measures Directions, character evidence, hearsay, confessions, the defendant’s silence, improperly obtained evidence, supporting evidence, identification expert opinion, issues in the course of trial, privilege, public policy and mixed questions. The final chapter gives guidance on assessed coursework. The book is suitable for undergraduate law students taking optional modules in Evidence.