1-5 of 5 Results

  • Keyword: capital rules x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Banking Law and Regulation

8. Micro-prudential regulation I  

Capital adequacy

Iris Chiu and Joanna Wilson

This chapter studies capital adequacy regulation, which prescribes that banks can only take certain levels of risk that are supported by adequate levels of capital. In this way, capital adequacy rules provide a form of assurance that banks with adequate levels of capital are likely able to withstand losses that may result from their risk-taking. The Basel Committee developed its first set of capital adequacy standards in the Basel I Capital Accord of 1988. It was subsequently overhauled into the Basel II Capital Accord in 2003. After the global financial crisis of 2007–9, the Basel II Accord’s shortcomings were extensively discussed and the Basel Committee introduced a package of reforms in order to plug the gaps in Basel II. The Basel III package is the most extensive suite of micro-prudential regulation reforms seen to date, as they deal with capital adequacy and a range of other micro-prudential standards.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Company Law

7. Creditors  

Because of limited liability, creditor protection has always been a feature of company law. Large creditors can contract ex ante for customised protection and the law facilitates this in various ways, notably by the creation of the floating charge. Non-adjusting creditors require the protection of mandatory rules, at least in some situations. Creditor protection in relation to companies in the vicinity of insolvency is now well established, not only through ‘wrongful trading’ but also via transaction invalidity rules and directors’ disqualification. For going-concern companies the emphasis is on rules restricting the shifting assets to shareholders via distributions and associated rules relating to the maintenance of capital.

Chapter

Cover Steiner and Woods EU Law

18. Free Movement of Payments and Capital  

This chapter examines the rules concerning free movement of payment and capital within the European Union provided in Articles 63, 64, 65 and 66 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It explains the scope of and derogations to the free movement of capital. The chapter also considers restrictions on free movement of capital between Member States and third countries. It highlights the willingness of the Court of Justice (CJ) to borrow principles (ie, rule of reason) from the other freedoms. This chapter also considers briefly the provisions relating to monetary and economic union and the developments in the light of the financial crisis.

Chapter

Cover Steiner & Woods EU Law

18. Free movement of payments and capital  

This chapter examines the rules concerning free movement of payment and capital within the European Union provided in Articles 63, 64, 65 and 66 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It explains the scope of and derogations to the free movement of capital. The chapter also considers restrictions on free movement of capital between Member States and third countries. It highlights the willingness of the Court of Justice (CJ) to borrow principles (i.e. rule of reason) from the other freedoms. This chapter also considers briefly the provisions relating to monetary and economic union and the developments in the light of the financial crisis.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

21. Share capital—capital raising and payment  

This chapter considers the statutory rules governing share capital requirements, especially the rules governing allotment of shares, payment for shares, and capital raising. Share capital rules are predominantly statutory and this chapter looks at the statutory framework on allotment including the authority of the directors to allot shares, the need for rights issues; the ability to accept a non-cash consideration; and the prohibitions on various types of consideration, in the case of public companies. Minimum capital requirements and the need to avoid issuing at a discount are considered. A key issue for public companies is whether to make an offer of their shares to the public or seek to have their shares traded on a public market. The regulatory framework for public offers of shares, essentially requiring a prospectus, is considered.