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Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

5. Contract IV: discharge of contract and remedies for breach  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on contract law. It discusses the discharge of contracts and the remedies for breach of contract where one of the parties has failed in their contractual obligations. Contracts can be discharged through performance, agreement, frustration, or breach. In the event of frustration, the parties can establish their own remedies or they can rely on the provisions developed through the Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943. Remedies have been established through the common law and equity. Damages are the primary remedy in most cases, but equitable remedies include specific performance, injunctions, and rectification.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

14. Mixed topic questions  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions which cover a mixture of topics. The questions require you to cover a range of material covered in your module. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through a combination of topics that may typically be examined together in an employment law question. Guidance is given on how best to approach mixed questions including the benefits of not viewing topics in isolation and how best to demonstrate the range and depth of knowledge required in a mixed topic question.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

5. Terms and breach of contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses how to identify the contractual obligations assumed by the parties in their contract, distinguishing terms (promises) and representations (non-promissory inducements to contract), and identifying the express and implied terms. It also looks at standards of performance, how to identify broken promises as a prelude to considering the remedies for breach of contract, and whether it is possible to opt not to continue to perform further contractual obligations following the other party’s breach.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

10. Remedies of the buyer  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the various remedies that are available to a buyer under a contract of sale of goods where the seller is in breach of the sales contract. It considers the regime of remedies introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and discusses a range of remedies such as rejecting the goods, suing for non-delivery or late delivery of the goods, suing for damages following the seller’s breach of warranty, requiring the seller to repair or replace the goods, claiming from the seller a reduction in the price, or rescinding the contract. The chapter then explains the difference between breach of condition of the contract and breach of warranty.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

8. Variation, breach, and termination of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses variations of terms and conditions of employment. Theoretically, neither employer nor employee can unilaterally alter the terms and conditions of employment. A unilateral variation that is not accepted will constitute a breach and, if serious, could amount to a repudiation of the contract. A repudiation does not automatically terminate a contract of employment. In order to justify summary dismissal, the employee must be in breach of an important express or implied term of the contract.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

6. Misrepresentation  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. Misrepresentation is defined as a false statement of fact, made pre-contractually, which is intended to induce the representee to enter into a contract and which has that effect. If an actionable misrepresentation is found to exist a court will then need to consider the available remedies. This chapter considers the following issues relevant to answering any problem question on misrepresentation. Has there been a false statement of fact? Is there evidence of inducement? What type of misrepresentation has potentially been made? What remedies are potentially available? Has liability for misrepresentation been effectively excluded? Has there been a breach of contract?

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

11. Damages  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. The common law places great emphasis on damages as the primary remedy for breach of contract, reinforced by the fact that although a victim of a breach may seek specific performance or an injunction, such orders are equitable in nature and therefore discretionary. In claiming damages, the victim of a breach will need to establish that: the claimed method for assessing damages is appropriate (measure); the damages are not too remote (remoteness); if relevant, compensation for inconvenience and/or disappointment caused by the breach is recoverable (non-pecuniary losses); the losses could not have been reasonably mitigated (mitigation); and the recoverable losses have been properly quantified (quantification). Separately, the validity of any agreed damages clause will need to be determined.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

6. Statutory employment protection and related contractual issues  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory employment protection and related contractual issues. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory employment protection including eligibility requirements for the right not to be unfairly dismissed, the right to written reasons for dismissal, statutory minimum notice periods, the right to be accompanied to disciplinary hearings, and the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

9. Remedies of the unpaid seller  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter considers the remedies that are available to a seller against the buyer for breach of contract and the position when the buyer refuses delivery of the goods. These are real remedies and personal remedies, which are set out in Parts V and VI of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. An example of a real remedy is a lien over the goods, whereas two examples of a personal remedy are an action for the price and damages for non-acceptance of the goods.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

7. Remedies for breach of contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on damages, the aim of which is generally to protect the claimant’s contractual expectation and put the claimant into the position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed. The lost expectation may be measured in terms of the difference between what the claimant expected to get and what was actually received. There are limitations on the claimant’s ability to be fully compensated for losses as a result of breach, i.e. remoteness, mitigation, contributory negligence, and the ability to recover for non-pecuniary losses in contract. This chapter also examines agreed damages clauses and the operation of the penalty rule.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

5. Exclusion and limitation clauses  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on clauses designed to exclude or limit a party’s liability, first considers exclusion or limitation clauses in the UK under common law rules, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the distinction between an exclusion clause and a limitation clause before discussing the two main methods of controlling exclusion clauses adopted by the courts. The chapter examines the exclusion or restriction of the statutory implied terms under the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982. Finally, it considers the rules introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 in relation to consumer transactions.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

11. Consumer credit  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements, as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.