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Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

17. The remedies of the buyer  

This chapter sets out the remedies available to the buyer under a contract of sale. Before the Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumers Regulations 2002, these remedies comprised damages for non-delivery of the contract goods, specific performance, and damages for breach of warranty. In cases of breach of condition, the buyer generally has the right to reject the goods and repudiate the contract. Since implementation of the 2002 Regulations, a buyer who deals as consumer has additional remedies of repair, replacement, reduction in price, or rescission. These additional consumer remedies are discussed after a consideration of the remedies that are available to all buyers, including consumers, beginning with those remedies granted to a buyer where the seller fails to deliver the goods, or fails to deliver on time. Certain consumer contracts entered into after 1 October 2015 are governed by the Consumer Rights Act 2015, which is also discussed.

Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

9. Passing of the property in the goods as between seller and buyer  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter examines the concept of the passing of the property in goods as between seller and buyer which has significance for many purposes in law. It discusses why the matter is important, before going on to cover the rules for determining when the property passes as it is plainly a matter of the greatest importance to identify the point at which it occurs. The chapter goes on to discuss the statutory provisions relating to perishing of specific goods, how the passing of property is related to acceptance or rejection of goods, the risk involved in the passing of property, and the frustration of sale of goods contracts.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

8. Relations between agent and third party  

This chapter considers the relations between the agent and third party. The typical function of an agent is to affect the legal position of his principal in relation to third parties, typically achieved by the agent effecting contractual relations between his principal and a third party or third parties. To this contract, the agent is usually a stranger and it therefore follows that, providing all parties perform their obligations, there will be no legal relations between the agent and third party, aside from any warranty of authority that might be deemed to exist. If the parties, however, fail to properly perform their obligations, legal relations between the agent and third party may arise that allow one party to sue, or be sued by, the other. This chapter discusses the general rule, and also those situations where the agent and third party will acquire a cause of action against the other.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

10. Remedies of the buyer  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the various remedies that are available to a buyer under a contract of sale of goods where the seller is in breach of the sales contract. It considers the regime of remedies introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and discusses a range of remedies such as rejecting the goods, suing for non-delivery or late delivery of the goods, suing for damages following the seller’s breach of warranty, requiring the seller to repair or replace the goods, claiming from the seller a reduction in the price, or rescinding the contract. The chapter then explains the difference between breach of condition of the contract and breach of warranty.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

Additional Chapter: The UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods  

This chapter is intended to introduce the reader to the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods otherwise known as the ‘Vienna’ Convention or the ‘Convention of the International Sale of Goods (CISG). This chapter is intended to introduce the reader to the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods otherwise known as the ‘Vienna’ Convention or the ‘Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). The chapter begins with a discussion of the scope and application of the convention along with the difficulties with its interpretation and the problem of ensuring consistency across all jurisdictions. It then deals with the substantive provisions of the convention covering offer and acceptance, resolving the battle of the forms and variation of contract. It then details the rights, duties and remedies of the parties especially where these differ from English law, for example in relation to the seller’s right to cure, and the right to reduce the price in the event of breach and particularly the limitations on the right of either party to terminate the contract. It ends with a table comparing in summary form. the provisions of the CISG with the position in English law,

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

9. Remedies of the unpaid seller  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter considers the remedies that are available to a seller against the buyer for breach of contract and the position when the buyer refuses delivery of the goods. These are real remedies and personal remedies, which are set out in Parts V and VI of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. An example of a real remedy is a lien over the goods, whereas two examples of a personal remedy are an action for the price and damages for non-acceptance of the goods.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

5. Exclusion and limitation clauses  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter, which focuses on clauses designed to exclude or limit a party’s liability, first considers exclusion or limitation clauses in the UK under common law rules, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the distinction between an exclusion clause and a limitation clause before discussing the two main methods of controlling exclusion clauses adopted by the courts. The chapter examines the exclusion or restriction of the statutory implied terms under the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973, and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982. Finally, it considers the rules introduced by the Consumer Rights Act 2015 in relation to consumer transactions.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

11. Consumer credit  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements, as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.